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GENDER ANALYSIS IN GAMBELLA AND SOMALI REGIONS USING PRA TECHNIQUES
|Location :||Addis Ababa, ETHIOPIA|
|Application Deadline :||10-Jun-11|
|Additional Category||Poverty Reduction|
|Type of Contract :||Individual Contract|
|Post Level :||International Consultant|
|Languages Required :||English|
|Starting Date :|
(date when the selected candidate is expected to start)
|Duration of Initial Contract :||10 weeks|
|Expected Duration of Assignment :||10 weeks|
UNDP would like to recruit a consultant to facilitate conduct Gender Analysis in Gamballa and Somali for the DRR Project with the following detail ToR. Ethiopia has achieved an average annual economic growth rate of more than 11 percent for the past years. However, despite this significant accomplishment, the country still faces challenges in food security since rural livelihoods are dependent on small scale and rain-fed agriculture. The predominantly agrarian economy of the country is exposed to and highly vulnerable to environmental shocks that often translate into disasters.
The increased frequency of climate related extremes manifested mainly in droughts and flooding renders the people highly vulnerable. Over the past years, the threats from successive drought and frequent floods have set back developmental gains, exacerbated food insecurity and diverted scarce development resources to humanitarian response. National Development and Disaster Risk management To arrest the multi faceted problems and build on the sustained developmental gains, Ethiopia has embarked on a growth and transformation agenda to realize its vision of becoming a middle income, democratic and developmental state and a carbon neutral climate resilient economy by 2025.
The government also made a major shift in orientation from crisis management to a multi-sectoral and multi-hazard Disaster Risk Management (DRM) approach so as to be better able to achieve the targets articulated in the Growth and Transformational Plan (GTP). This also led to the revision of the Disaster Prevention and Management Policy reinforcing the application of the multi sectoral and integrated DRM approach. To facilitate and guide the process of operationalizing the new DRM approach, the GoE initiated the development of the DRM Strategic Programme and Investment Framework (DRM SPIF) which presents the components and programmes on DRM along the different phases of DRM – pre disaster, disaster and post disaster – and their interrelationship.
This has been recently shared among development partners urrently, the Government and development partners support several activities that contribute to reducing the impact of disasters. This among others include the UNDP supported Disaster Risk Reduction and Livelihood recovery. The Government has also led the process of woreda disaster risk profiling to have a good understanding of the hazards, vulnerability, and capacities existing at the local level and so as to address successfully the root causes vulnerability, increase resilience and reduce the threat of hazards. The project supports the UNDAF 2007-2011 outcome of strengthening national capacities to respond to situations that threaten the lives and well-being of a significant proportion of a population, which require rapid and appropriate action to ensure their survival, care, protection and recovery while enhancing their resilience to shocks and leading to food security and sustainable livelihoods.
It also links with the new UNDAF outcome that stretches from 2012 to 2014 It is the first UNDP and partners-supported project to commence operationalizing the new GoE strategy on disaster risk reduction and the national early recovery strategic framework. The frequency and scale of disasters have increased over recent years and are increasingly exposing large number of people to life and livelihood threatening situation especially the vulnerable group such as women and children. Poverty reduction efforts and progresses registered at individual, household and community levels are also reversing due to weak risk and disaster management practices. The national development plan has recognized the need to build capacity to manage risk and volatility caused by both natural and man-made disasters. Towards effective disaster prevention and recovery responses, policy measures are underway to mitigate the consequences of disasters and maintain the development gains.
The proposed project on “Strengthening National Capacities for Disaster Risk Reduction and Livelihoods Recovery,” is a multi-level initiative that will be implemented at the Federal, Regional and Woreda level, contributing to the achievement of Country Programme’s outcomes and the overall vision of the growth and transformation plan of the government. The Disaster risk and early recovery program will be implemented over a period of three years and r intends the following outputs geared towards contributing to the outcomeme mentioned aboveCapacity for risk identification, integrating DRR into development planning, disaster preparedness and response system management and overall disaster risk management strengthened at Federal and Regional and Woreda levelsEnhanced coordination at national, regional and woreda levels for improved emergency management, disaster risk reduction, food security and long term sustainable development.Improved, diversified and adaptive livelihoods for vulnerable Crop and livestock farmers and pastoralists and enhancement of water security through water resource rehabilitation and/or development in target regions.Integrated watershed and flood management systems and settlement programmes developed for flood-prone communitiesInternally displaced persons (IDPs) returned and integrated with enhanced livelihoodsGender Issues Gender equality remains a challenge in Ethiopia. Women continue to be poorer, more marginalized, unhealthier and less secure. According to the 2006 CSA report, women constitute 47% of the labor force, 79.25 of them are illiterate, 68.5% are unpaid family workers, while 24.8 are self employed in informal jobs. As reflected in several indicators Gender differentials persist at all levels. Despite the statistics, Ethiopian women constitutes half of the population, comprise a majority of those living in absolute poverty. Women do not participate and benefit equally with men due to the socio cultural norms and values that govern their lives coupled with their traditional roles. Due to discriminatory traditional customs, the lack of control and access to resources, women continue to be socially and economically dependent.
Mostly in disaster situation, Gender relations indicate how disaster impact on people and communities at large. Most importantly, it highlights the impact of disaster on both males and females. Both men and women suffer personal danger in disaster situation but the impact on women may be greater due to their lack of mobility; their triple roles as bearers especially pregnant women; careers of the children, elderly and persons with disabilities in the family and community; and community organizers.
Furthermore, due to several pre-disaster conditions, such as poverty, illiteracy, health dangers from sexual and reproductive roles, gender-based discrimination in accessing basic resources, under-representation in national and local institutions, and, weak property rights, make women more vulnerable to hazards. Factors such as the land tenure system in relation to women’s usufruct rights as opposed to ownership rights to productive agricultural land, increases their vulnerably in pre and post disaster situations.
In post disaster women’s workload increases significantly while they try to balance their traditional roles and addressing the disaster situation. They are also more vulnerable to social abuse during and post disasters which impact on their health and safety as well as their children. This situation increased their drudgery in caring for the children, elderly and persons with disabilities. The limited economic assets and other belongings they have are also lost living them with no means of immediate earnings. This includes access to quality arable land, limited or no food for family consumption and appropriate domicile.
Considering the above gender challenges in disaster risk management, women’s equal participation and benefit with men cannot be considered separately. Thus gender analysis is sine quo non for effective and efficient management and sustainability of the DRR program in the rural areas. Assessment of the gender gaps and the identifying the social, cultural norms and values that exists tin the communities is necessary for efficient management and sustainability of the DRR Program, As a result, this consultancy to conduct gender analysis is found imperative
Duties and Responsibilities
The main objectives of the assessment is to establish facts and evidence base on Gender differentials at the local level and build capacities of local communities for effective management and sustainability of the Disaster Risk and Early recovery of Program, using participatory rural development approach.
Scope of the Gender Analysis - PRA
The Gambella and Somali regions are among the four DRR implemented regions of Ethiopia. These areas have repeatedly encountered recurrent drought that worsened vulnerability level of the poor, resulting in wide spread internal displacement, and posed the need for an integrated recovery program to enable pastoral and agro pastoral communities to recover from the impacts of drought. As in most natural calamities, women are the most vulnerable groups as they try to blend their social roles and the crisis.
A Participatory rural Appraisal (PRA) approach is considered more appropriate in ensuring equal participation and in the identification of the gender gaps and ensures community involvement in the planning and management of the disaster risk program. In addition, the communities would recognize the causative factors and barriers that contribute to the gender barriers. The value added to this approach is that those negative practices and beliefs that may impact on the vulnerable groups to enjoy equal rights and benefits from development activates in their communities would be identified and addressed by themselves.
Required Skills and Experience
Interested individual consultants must submit the following documents/information to demonstrate their qualifications:
Proposal should be submitted at the following address:-
UNDP/Procurement Unit, P. O. Box 5580, A.A, Ethiopia or by hand to UNDP/Procurement Unit, Old Building 6th Floor, Room no. 606 or with e-mail: email@example.com;
1. Proposal: (not more than 450 words)
2. Financial proposal: indicate lump sum payable on deliverables ( %).
3. Personal CV including past experience in similar projects and at least 3 references
Individual consultants will be evaluated based on the following methodologies:
The award of the contract shall be made to the individual consultant whose offer has been evaluated and determined as:
* Technical Criteria weight; 70%
* Financial Criteria weight; 30%
Only candidates obtaining a minimum of 49 point and above would be considered for the Financial Evaluation
UNDP is committed to achieving workforce diversity in terms of gender, nationality and culture. Individuals from minority groups, indigenous groups and persons with disabilities are equally encouraged to apply. All applications will be treated with the strictest confidence.