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PUBLIC SERVICE EXPERTS / AUTHORS FOR INTERNATIONAL STUDY (CAT. C : LOW HDI RANK)
|Application Deadline :||08-Sep-13|
|Type of Contract :||Individual Contract|
|Post Level :||International Consultant|
|Languages Required :||English|
|Starting Date :|
(date when the selected candidate is expected to start)
|Duration of Initial Contract :||5 months|
|Expected Duration of Assignment :||5 months|
Since 2008, more than half of the world’s population lives in towns and cities. It has been estimated that by 2030 this number will swell to almost 5 billion, with urban growth concentrated in Africa and Asia. While mega-cities have captured much public attention, most of the new growth will occur in small and medium size towns and cities, which have fewer resources to respond to the magnitude of the change.
The World Economic and Social Survey 2013 puts forth a clear message: “without fresh ideas to address rapid urbanization, the number of people living in slums lacking access to basic infrastructure and services such as sanitation, electricity, and health care may skyrocket from one billion at present to three billion by 2050”.
The 2013 UNDP Human Development Report projects 70 percent of the world’s population would be living in urban settlements by 2050 of which 33 percent would be living in slums. This implies that while the world’s population is still growing, its cities are growing at an even faster rate. Eighty percent of the world’s GDP is generated from cities and coincidentally 80 percent of greenhouse gas emissions as well (World Bank 2012).
There is a systematic and concerted effort by governments in emerging economies to leverage the benefits of urbanization through targeted programs that promote and accelerate domestic growth, prepare the base for structured domestic consumption market, and to regulate the flows of population.
Policies are also in place to support the urbanization of previously rural centers with mass structured and systematic gentrification and/or construction of cities in previously large rural spaces. In China an estimated 250 million people will be transferred from rural residents to urban dwellers by 2030.
The narrative on income inequality is linked with analysis on the gap between the richest and poorest income groups. In 2010 Credit Suisse argued that 0.5 percent of global adults hold well over a third of the world’s wealth, which translated into individuals with net worth over US$1 million. While the bottom group composed on 68.4 percent of the population had an individual net worth under US$ 10,000.
Further disaggregation of the data highlighted that the concentration of absolute net worth levels i.e. net worth over US$1 million constituted 35.6 percent of global wealth while only 4.2 percent reflected net worth under US$ 10,000. This reflects the concentration of the global wealth within the confines of the superrich and the share of wealth amongst different income groups remains skewed towards the top.
Inequality is usually referred to in the context of income gaps. However, income as an indicator remains a product of social and political factors which perpetuate disparity. The post-2015 High Level Panel discussions have focused on reducing inequality as a primary goal. The roadmap for such an approach requires effective public service institutions, which target and deliver services in functional and informal spaces where it matters most to the urban poor. It is critical that the role of local authorities as this bridge between national governments, communities and citizens is recognised and supported.
Globally, while the number of people living in poverty (US$1.25 per day) has declined from 1.9 billion in 1990 to 1.3 billion in 2008, yet inequality has increased. Inequalities, across income and in key sectors such as education and health, have had a significant negative impact on overall human development especially in developing countries. For example, according to 2013 UNDP Human Development Report, the low human development countries lose 33.5 percent of in HDI value due to inequalities; 35.7 percent due to inequality in life expectancy, 38.7 percent due to education and 25.6 percent due to income inequality.
A slew of global and national reports have highlighted inequality as a critical factor behind slacking poverty reduction and unsustainable economic growth. The 2013 UNDP Human Development Report identifies equity as one of the key enablers to sustain momentum on human development. The Commission on Growth and Development published in 2008 ‘The Growth Report: Strategies for Sustained Growth and Inclusive Development’ opined the need to address inequality through a meaningful and targeted approach, “It is our belief that equity and equality of opportunity are essential ingredients of sustainable growth strategies. The evidence from both high and low cases supports this view.”
A range of social protection and safety net programs have been implemented across emerging and developing nations to address the issue of equity. These include conditional cash transfers, universal child allowance, universal health coverage, and employment guarantee schemes that are designed at the national level to target income as the primary indicator and reach predominantly rural households.
In the urban context, public service institutions need to be equipped with adequate governance structures, processes and systems to face the challenge of rapid urbanization and to implement such programs effectively. For this purpose, public servants not only require the right skill set to adapt these programs to the local context and set up implementation systems, but also need to have empathy towards the urban poor and an understanding of their needs.
Gender was identified as a key determinant for inequality and a concern for public services. The Gender Inequality Index (GII) measures three dimensions, reproductive health, empowerment and the labor market. In 2013 the global average was 0.463 reflecting a percentage loss in achievement across three dimensions due to gender inequality of 46.3 percent. The regional average ranged from 28 percent in Europe and Central Asia, to nearly 58 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa. The greatest losses were found in Sub-Saharan Africa with 57.7 percent, South Asia with 56.8 percent and Arab States with 55.5 percent.
Urban human insecurity disproportionately impacts women’s livelihood opportunities, mobility and negotiation capabilities. This is often reflective of legal and judicial systems, which treat women unequally on property rights, dispense stronger punishment and provide poor access to justice.
There are other bases of inequality, such as differences in the ability of citizens to access basic services which would require multi-pronged approaches. Changes to practices, attitudes and regulation that would lead to greater equity are part of many administrative reform agendas. The enforcement of financial regulations and promotion of equitable economic development are just some examples of actions that Governments have taken. Public services need to be proactive and innovative but depend on collaborative capacities and partnerships with organizations and citizens in all realms of society.
Since the global financial crisis, inequalities in the ownership of economic resources, income, opportunity and access to services have been increasingly catching the attention of governments and citizens. Political concern and unrest threaten to occur because people are questioning the unequal allocation of resources and opportunities as outcomes of their countries’ economic systems. There is a widespread perception that inequality is growing, a problem recently characterized as one of the world’s ‘biggest social, economic and political challenges’. These are challenges that governments and their public services will have to address. While the income gaps that separate rich and poor nations have started to decrease, the economic disparities within many nations have started to increase.
Much of the urban population growth in developing countries comes from internal rural-urban migration as well as natural growth within urban centers and, to a lesser extent, international migration. A combination of push factors, such as lack of economic opportunities and safety concerns, and pull factors, such as better services and job prospects, account for the burgeoning urban populations. But absorbing the new migrants has always been challenging and remains so in the present and foreseeable future. Many end up in slums and squatter settlements where they endure overcrowding, poor sanitation, low-paying jobs and other deprivations. Such exclusion represents a waste of human potential and severely limits social mobility. This is a particularly disturbing given that one third of the urban population in developing countries lives in substandard slum conditions.
Cities are important and becoming even more important. ‘Getting urbanization right’ is therefore vital for the future of humanity. Generating jobs, providing housing, building infrastructure, encouraging economic development and ensuring adequate services available to all are among the many tasks facing governments and their partners over the coming years.
The World Bank has suggested that sustainable urbanization can be achieved through a judicious combination of planning (charting a course for cities); connecting (making a city’s markets in labour, goods and services accessible both from within and outside the city); and financing (for large capital outlays). Public services will have major responsibilities for undertaking these tasks but they will need to form partnerships with the private sector, citizens and civil society to achieve them. The tasks must also be performed within frameworks of good governance featuring such things as accountability, transparency, professionalism, the rule of law and efficiency.
Duties and Responsibilities
The research/analysis of the available evidence conducted by several experts (here: consultants) will be coordinated by the Director of the UNDP Global Centre for Public Service Excellence (GCPSE), Singapore. The expert consultants are expected to:
The overall study is expected to explore the above mentioned types of inequality through citations to the policy areas above and extrapolate lessons for public policy practitioners in an accurate, innovative and insightful manner.
The research initiative will employ a theory of change applying different filters to understand the key drivers related to the demand and supply side of public services. These shall include the following filters (N.B. research questions provided as samples):
Draw strategic policy and programmatic recommendations with a robust and practical implementing strategy, informed by on-the-ground experience in the case studies, desk research and own experience. The recommendations will distinguish between horizontal and vertical inequalities to address all three types of inequalities (i.e. social, political and economic). With respect to vertical inequalities economic differences between different sub groups and the approach undertaken to reduce this gap will be taken into account. Approaches to tackle existing or emerging social issues, which perpetuate inequity through structural factors, will be proposed to address horizontal inequalities. Since political inequality directly reflects a combination of the policy maker’s ability to respond to public grievances as well as the existing consultation processes and collaborative capacity, recommendations towards this end will be included. The study should utilize the following matrix to highlight key points on each in respect to the three types of inequality.
Country type (high, medium, low HDI): (Category -Coverage of Recommendations (indicative))
The GCPSE will contract three experts to write separate papers and will offer one of the experts the additional assignment of writing the introductory and concluding chapters.
The following is expected from each consultant:
In addition to the individual paper, the consultant selected as the editor/author for the introductory and concluding chapters is expected to deliver the following:
Delivery milestones and reporting:
The sections marked with "special assignment" only apply for the expert contracted to supply the additional deliverables (see previous section for details).
Each expert/consultant will report and submit deliverables to the GCPSE Director who will ensure quality control (peer review), editing and publishing of the study. As the overall coordinator of the study he will periodically convene virtual meetings to ensure quality and timeliness of the research work.
The GCPSE will organise a consultation for peer review and feedback on the draft deliverables within two weeks (maximum) after submission.
The total duration of the assignment is approximately 24 weeks from the date of contracting. The intended date of publication of the study is end February 2014.
Bidding Process: Each bidder is expected to submit a technical proposal and curriculum vitae in response to the ToR. The technical proposal shall demonstrate competency and qualifications as per the below and needs to indicate which of the three country categories he/she is applying for (bidders may apply for several categories):
For the proposed category (or categories, if bidding for several), the bidder shall propose a selection of five countries for which he/she can demonstrate subject knowledge and is confident in producing country case studies. Since the authors are producing a cross-comparison between countries a cohesive selection with wide geographic representation is preferred. For more details on the categories, please see http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics for the 2012 HDI rankings, published in the 2013 HDR.
If the bidder is keen to take on the responsibility of authoring the introductory and concluding chapters, he/she is requested to indicate this in the technical proposal and describe his/her qualifications and planned approach for the same.
In the financial proposal each bidder will provide a lump-sum costing for the completion of the work. This shall exclude costs that may be incurred for the participation in workshops/seminars to which he/she may be invited for presentation. In case the bidder has indicated an interest in authoring the introductory and concluding chapters, the additional cost shall be separately indicated in the financial proposal. Please download this financial template via this link: http://www.undp.org.my/page.php?pid=208&action=preview&menu=sub2
Please scan and upload all the documents into one PDF file.
Any request for clarification must be send in writing to firstname.lastname@example.org. Please write the Project reference "MyIC/2013/015" in your e-mail heading. The deadline for submitting requests for clarification/questions is 27 August 2013 at 12 noon.
Remuneration will be as per the agreed financial proposal, in line with the policies and norms established by UNDP. Payment would be made on a lump sum basis on the following schedule:
The assignment is home-based. If travel to selected countries for consultations (e.g. with national and local partners and experts, and data collection) is deemed necessary, prior approval from the Director, GCPSE is required. (N.B.: travel and allowances will be covered as per UNDP standard rules and procedures).
For the introductory and concluding chapters, the following payment schedule applies:
For more details on the categories, please see http://hdr.undp.org/en/statistics for the 2012 HDI rankings, published in the 2013 HDR.
Functional and technical competencies:
Required Skills and Experience
UNDP is committed to achieving workforce diversity in terms of gender, nationality and culture. Individuals from minority groups, indigenous groups and persons with disabilities are equally encouraged to apply. All applications will be treated with the strictest confidence.