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Individual Consultant(s) for PBF End of Project Evaluation
|Location :||Abuja, NIGERIA|
|Application Deadline :||20-Jul-21 (Midnight New York, USA)|
|Additional Category :||Democratic Governance and Peacebuilding|
|Type of Contract :||Individual Contract|
|Post Level :||National Consultant|
|Languages Required :||English|
|Starting Date :|
(date when the selected candidate is expected to start)
|Duration of Initial Contract :||45 Days|
|Expected Duration of Assignment :||45 Days|
UNDP is committed to achieving workforce diversity in terms of gender, nationality and culture. Individuals from minority groups, indigenous groups and persons with disabilities are equally encouraged to apply. All applications will be treated with the strictest confidence.
UNDP does not tolerate sexual exploitation and abuse, any kind of harassment, including sexual harassment, and discrimination. All selected candidates will, therefore, undergo rigorous reference and background checks.
The Farmer-Herder Conflict remains one of the most challenging threats to peace, security and development in Nigeria, especially in the North Central Region (“Middle Belt”) of the country, and adjacent, States, particularly Benue, Plateau, Kaduna, Nasarawa, Taraba and Adamawa. The violence has exacted a heavy toll on thousands of people, frayed many of the connectors, especially inter-ethnic and inter-religious ones, at the local level. The socio-economic and developmental implications of the conflict is far reaching – affecting the food basket of the country.
The Strategic Conflict Assessment of Nigeria, carried out by the Institute for Peace and Conflict Resolution (IPCR) in 2016, identified the conflict between herders and farmers in Nigeria as the single most widely spread peace and security threat in the country. The highest number of reported conflicts of this nature between herdsmen and local farmers occur in the “Middle Belt” and adjacent states, particularly the states of Benue, Plateau, Kaduna, Nasarawa, Taraba and Adamawa. Thousands of lives have been lost, property destroyed, and communities left in disarray, with many more internally displaced all over many parts of the Middle Belt and other parts of Nigeria. Estimates indicate that the communal violence between farmers and herders claimed more lives in 2016 alone than the Boko Haram insurgency and International Crisis Group suggests that the recent escalation of the crisis from early 2018 has claimed six times the number of lives to that of the Boko Haram insurgency in the same period.
In 2020, high levels of polarization between herder-farmer communities and competition over natural resources in the midst of growing population and climate risks continue to exacerbate tensions leading to communal violence in the Middle Belt – especially in Benue and Nasarawa States. The anti-grazing law prohibiting the free movement of pastoral communities has been identified a polarizing factor as sentiment for increased exclusion of herding communities persists. Of greater concern is the resurgence of communal violence especially in Benue regarded as the epicenter of the herder-farmer crisis. Between April and July 2020, a total of 69 incidents of communal violence led to over 130 fatalities in Benue and Nasarawa states. This was twice the number of fatalities at the beginning of the year. The region is also witnessing a humanitarian situation with the number of internally displaced persons due to violence rising to 483,692 in July 2020.
Besides the impact on human lives, the huge security implications are draining Nigeria’s economy of resources meant for development and undermining food security in the country and the sub-region. According to reports published in July 2015 by Mercy Corps, Benue, Plateau, Kaduna and Nasarawa states could gain up to $13.7 billion annually in total macroeconomic benefits if the conflict between herdsmen and farmers was fully addressed. The economic and peace dividends beyond the concerned states are enormous. Mercy Corps estimated that Nigerian households affected by the ongoing clashes could witness an increase in their income ranging between 64 and 210 percent if these conflicts were resolved.
The narratives arising out of clashes over farmland and/or pasture, have increasingly taken religious undertones (Muslims versus Christians), with religious leaders publicly exchanging accusations, as well as ethnic connotations (indigenes versus settlers) and stereotypes that have heightened tensions, a development which has further polarized communities and complicated efforts at mitigating the violence. The conflicts have already been highly politicized, with some groups proclaiming the southward movement of pastoralists as a deliberate political attempt to ‘Islamize’ southern Nigeria. Media coverage of incidents often sensationalizes the violence and contributes to spreading divisive narratives. Communities in states affected by farmer-herder conflicts have revealed a widespread distrust of security forces who are often perceived by both farmers and herders to be biased and ineffective when responding to incidents. This results in poor coordination and information sharing between local communities, civil society groups and security agencies on the one hand, hindering early warning and rapid response and a rise in local militias or vigilante groups to plug the gap.
The multi-dimensional effects of the crises have overwhelmed state and federal authorities, whom many perceive not to be doing enough to address the crisis. The lack of an effective early response by security agencies as well as perceived injustices, partiality, and ineffectiveness, is eroding public trust in the state’s ability to protect its citizens. With states lacking effective tools to address the crisis at the state level, many state governments have turned to the federal government in search for support, most notably through requesting a strengthened security response. The lack of such a response has given way to tension between the federal and state level. The inability of security forces and local authorities to constructively respond to incidents, as well as the lack of trust in the Government to address tensions, often results in reprisal attacks and escalates the conflicts further.
The United Nations with the technical lead of UNDP has scaled up its efforts to compliment the Government’s efforts in peacebuilding, conflict prevention, resolution and management. This support is being provided through two catalytic projects that target the states of Benue, Nasarawa and Taraba, both designed to address the farmer-herder conflict by establishing mechanisms for coordinated peacebuilding, promotion of dialogue and proactive engagement; building mutually beneficial economic relationships between farmers and herders; improving the effectiveness of the security response through strengthened human rights monitoring and accountability; and providing an impartial and evidence-based narrative to defuse the politicized debate and help mobilize a broader response. This support is drawing on comparative mandates of 5 UN Agencies – namely - UNDP, FAO, UN Women, UNHCR and OHCHR.
The project “Integrated Approach to Building Peace in Nigeria’s Herder-Farmer Crisis” was designed to support Benue, Nasarawa and Taraba states in addressing the farmer-herder crisis through enhancing their preventive capacities by promoting dialogue and proactive engagement; building mutually beneficial economic relationships between farmers and herders; improving the effectiveness of the security response through strengthened human rights monitoring and accountability; and providing an impartial and evidence-based narrative to defuse the politicized debate and help mobilize a broader response. The project specifically aimed to strengthen the states’ peace infrastructures through the establishment and operationalization of peacebuilding agencies, a gender-sensitive Early Warning and Early Response System (EWERS) and community-based platforms for dialogue and consensus building. It further sought to strengthen interdependence between farmers and herders, for instance through trainings on integrated agro-production value chains (see project document and annual report for output results).
The project commenced in January 2019 for 18 months and was extended to December 2020 through a non-cost extension. The total budget is $3 million.
The project is implemented by UNDP ($1,683,283), UN Women ($321,058.85), FAO ($692,890.54) and OHCHR ($302,767.20), in continuous collaboration with state counterparts. Each project state has designated state focal point, mostly special advisors to the Governor, to constantly engage with the Project Team. Other partnerships with state institutions include the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC), Legal Aid Council, Nigerian Institute for Advanced Legal Studies, and the National Livestock Transformation Plan (NLTP) Secretariat. The Project Team also established a Peace Collaborative, an NGO consortium constituted of West Africa Network for Peacebuilding (WANEP), Mercy Corps, Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue (HD) and the private sector firm ThriveAgric.
This project evaluation presents an opportunity to assess the achievements of project “Integrated Approach to Building Peace in Nigeria’s Herder-Farmer Crisis” in an inclusive way and to determine its overall added value to peacebuilding in the middle -Belt region, in the areas peace and conflict resolution, livelihood and early recovery . In assessing the degree to which the project met its intended peacebuilding objectives and results, the evaluation will provide key lessons about successful peacebuilding approaches and operational practices, as well as highlight areas where the project performed less effectively than anticipated. In that sense, this project evaluation is equally about accountability as well as learning.
Objectives of the evaluation:
Provide actionable recommendations for future programming.
Duties and Responsibilities
Methodology and Approach
The evaluation will be summative and will employ a participatory approach whereby discussions with and surveys of key stakeholders provide/ verify the substance of the findings while ensuring that COVID19 protocols are duly maintained. Proposals submitted by prospective consultants should outline a strong mixed method approach to data collection and analysis, clearly noting how various forms of evidence will be employed vis-à-vis each other to triangulate gathered information.
Proposals should be clear on the specific role each of the various methodological approaches plays in helping to address each of the evaluation questions.
The methodologies for data collection may include but not necessarily be limited to:
Scope of Work
This evaluation will examine the project’s implementation process and peacebuilding results, drawing upon the project’s results framework as well as other monitoring data collected on the project outputs and outcomes as well as context. Evaluation questions are based on the OECD DAC evaluation criteria as well as PBF specific evaluation criteria, which have been adapted to the context.
Evaluators should take care to ensure that evaluation of the peacebuilding result is the main line of inquiry. Peacebuilding projects frequently employ approaches that work through thematic areas that overlap with development or humanitarian goals. An evaluation of peacebuilding projects, however, must include not only reflection on progress within the thematic area but the degree to which such progress may or may not have contributed to addressing a relevant conflict factor.
Evaluation Questions within specific OECD-DAC criteria
SUSTAINABILITY & OWNERSHIP
In addition to the above standard OECD/DAC criteria, the following additional PBF specific evaluation criteria should also be assessed by the evaluation:
RISK-TOLERANCE AND INNOVATION:
Presentation/validation of preliminary findings to relevant in-country stakeholders and PBF, following data collection
Final evaluation report: The expert(s) will prepare the final evaluation report based on PBF’s evaluation report template. The first draft of the final report will be shared with an Evaluation Reference Group, composed of representatives of all direct fund recipients and the PBF (at a minimum), for their comments. The final accepted version of the report will reflect ERG’s comments. The Final Report must be approved by both the evaluation manager and the PBF.
Required Skills and Experience
Good professional knowledge of the Nigerian governance context.
Fluency in both written and spoken English