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National Consultant– Economist for operationalization of Polluter-Pays Principle (PPP) in Bosnia and Herzegovina
|Location :||Home Based with Travel Within BiH - Sarajevo, BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA|
|Application Deadline :||24-Sep-21 (Midnight New York, USA)|
|Type of Contract :||Individual Contract|
|Post Level :||National Consultant|
|Languages Required :||English|
|Duration of Initial Contract :||30 working days over the period October 2021 to February 2022|
UNDP is committed to achieving workforce diversity in terms of gender, nationality and culture. Individuals from minority groups, indigenous groups and persons with disabilities are equally encouraged to apply. All applications will be treated with the strictest confidence.
UNDP does not tolerate sexual exploitation and abuse, any kind of harassment, including sexual harassment, and discrimination. All selected candidates will, therefore, undergo rigorous reference and background checks.
NOTE: Signed Offeror’s Letter to UNDP Confirming Interest and availability - https://www.ba.undp.org/content/dam/bosnia_and_herzegovina/docs/Operations/Jobs/Offerors%20Letter%20to%20UNDP%20Confirming%20Interest%20and%20Availability.docx - Letter to UNDP Confirming Interest and Availability.docx - to be sent to e-mail email@example.com with Subject: Job ID 101670.
Due to a long period of neglect and under-investment, urban infrastructure in BiH, public and residential buildings, energy systems and utilities, waste management, and transport, are now in need of expansion and modernization. From a global environmental standpoint, this situation contributes to a steady increase in greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, primarily associated with energy use in public facilities. Public facilities are also the largest energy users and GHG emission sources in municipalities in BiH. Modernization, upgrade and expansion of municipal buildings, infrastructure, and services in BiH will improve the quality of urban life and achieve a range of important local and global environmental and sustainable development benefits.
To achieve abovementioned, the “Catalyzing environmental finance for low-carbon urban development” Project (UrbanLED) strives to leverage investment for transformational shift towards low-carbon urban development (LCUD) in Bosnia and Herzegovina thereby promoting safer, cleaner, and healthier cities and reducing urban GHG emissions. To enable this transformational shift, the Project provides technical support towards the implementation of technically and economically feasible low-carbon solutions in key urban sectors and promotes their wider uptake by municipalities and private sector via dedicated financial mechanisms. The Project has been financed by Global Environment Facility (GEF) and is directly implemented by UNDP Bosnia and Herzegovina Country Office.
Under Component 1. Project will work on development of necessary regulations for instituting Polluter-Pays Principle (PPP) and improving the system for collecting PPP fees. The PPP principle is one of the most commonly used tools for environment protection. It is based on principle that those who produce pollution should bear the costs of managing it to prevent damage to human health or environment.
The first mention of the PPP principle at the international level was in the 1972 Recommendation by the OECD Council on Guiding Principles concerning International Economic Aspects of Environmental Policies. It stated that PPP principle is to be used for allocating costs of pollution prevention and control measures to encourage rational use of scarce environmental resources and to avoid distortions in international trade and investment. This was referred as a standard PPP. However, the PPP evolved over the time into an extended/stronger version of the principle. In 1989 OECD included costs related to accidental pollution into PPP, stating that in matters of accidental pollution risks, the PPP implies that the operator of a hazardous installation should bear the cost of reasonable measures to prevent and control accidental pollution from that installation. The PPP has also been reaffirmed in the 1992 Rio Declaration and is referred to in both Agenda 21 and the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) Johannesburg Plan of Implementation.
Today, PPP is one of the fundamental principles of the environmental policy of European Community. The Treaty Establishing the European Community, under Title XIX Environment, provides at article 174.2 that: "Community policy on the environment [...] shall be based on the precautionary principle and on the principles that preventive action should be taken, that environmental damage should as a priority be rectified at source and that the polluter should pay."
Before the recognition and application of the PPP, disproportionate social and private costs of pollution were being externalised from the polluter to wider society. Air and water resources were used as dump stations for pollution, and the damage to people, eco-system and property being paid for by society rather than by the polluter. The PPP is put out as an mechanism of change, that requires polluters to internalise the cost of potential pollution in the production process (built-in costs), rather than allowing society to incur costs in the aftermath. This involves the internalization of environmental costs into decision making for economic and other development plans, programs and projects that are likely to affect the environment. The principle requires accounting for both the short term and the long term external environmental costs.
In EU, the PPP has been utilized as an economic tool for managing different types of environmental pollution through embodiment in legislation such as the Environmental Liability Directive, the Air Quality Directive, the Waste Framework Directive, the Landfill Directive, the Water Framework Directive and others. PPP has been often used as a guidance for interpretation of the environmental directives and considerations on their temporal scope.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) is a highly fossil fuel dependent country, with carbon intensity about three times higher than the European average. This limits the country’s progress towards clean transition and EU integration. The introduction (transposition) of the acquis communautaire in the field of environmental protection into national legislation is one of the preconditions for Bosnia and Herzegovina's membership in the EU. The EU recommends the use of the Guide to the Approximation of EU Legislation and the Handbook on the Application of EU Environmental Legislation, which includes PPP principle as one of the main environmental principles.
To support the BiH on its path towards EU membership, the National Consultant will provide advisory and technical services for assessment of BiH and EU legislation, analysis of PPP application in Western Balkan and EU countries and propose a blueprint with concrete policy and institutional changes to fully integrate the PPP principle in environmental legal and policy framework in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The National Consultant will render technical support to the Climate Change Mitigation Program Manager, project team and government counterparts. The National Consultant will work under the overall guidance of and direct supervision from Climate Change Mitigation Programme Manager. However, on a daily basis the Consultant will work closely with the UrbanLED project team, two other team members for PPP introduction (National and International Environmental Policy Expert) and government counterparts.
Duties and Responsibilities
The project will support the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations of BiH, Environmental Protection Fund of FBiH, Federal Ministry of Environment and Tourism, RS Fund for Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency and RS Ministry of Spatial Planning, Civil Engineering and Ecology to prepare and adopt the necessary regulations to enable collection of fees based on various sources of environmental impacts related to environment sector thus enabling entities’ environmental funds to significantly scale-up its funding base for subsequent investment in LCUD. The consultant will be responsible for providing technical assistant to entities’ environmental funds, Federal Ministry of Environment and Tourism and RS Ministry of Spatial Planning, Civil Engineering and Ecology to develop and review regulations related to PPP application in respective entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska).
This assignment shall be completed by the expert team whose task is to assess the PPP concept and its application in Western Balkan and EU countries, identify points of entry and gaps in policy and regulations of both entities of BiH, formulate a blueprint for PPP integration, design policy and regulatory changes needed for the PPP integration and evaluate its economic and environmental impact in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Expert team for implementation of this assignment will consist of the following experts, with defined roles:
Expert team for operationalization of Polluter-Pays Principle (PPP) in Bosnia and Herzegovina will provide services for implementation of following tasks:
Task 1: PPP application studies, policy and regulatory framework assessment, which includes the following sub-tasks:
1. Desk review and analysis of PPP related EU policy and regulatory documents, including (but not limited to):
2. PPP principles and guidelines (focusing on PPP instruments), such as:
Task 2: Development of blueprint for PPP recognition and application in BiH, which includes the following sub-tasks:
Task 3: Designing changes to policy/regulatory documents for PPP recognition and application in BiH, which includes the following sub-tasks:
It is envisaged that the level of effort of National Consultant for these tasks will not exceed 30 expert days. Due to the uncertain situation regarding the COVID-19 pandemic, final decision on modality of meetings with stakeholders and project team will be made in line with official recommendations. If not possible to organize face-to-face meetings, the meetings with project staff and governmental counterparts will be organized on remote basis.
Outputs will be written reports with regards to the Task 1, 2 and 3 listed above. Written work will be supplemented by other requested consultation by phone, Teams, and in person.
Required Skills and Experience
Qualifications as stated in the ToR
Technical Evaluation Criteria
Individual will be evaluated based on the following methodology:
When using this weighted scoring method, the award of the contract should be made to the candidate whose offer has been evaluated and determined as:
Interested candidated must submit the following documents/information to demonstrate their qualifications:
Please scan all above mentioned documents and upload as one attachment only online through this website.