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International Expert for the Joint UNDP-ILO Research Project – Understanding better the paths to formalization in Cambodia: an integrated vision
|Location :||Homebased, CAMBODIA|
|Application Deadline :||16-Sep-21 (Midnight New York, USA)|
|Type of Contract :||Individual Contract|
|Post Level :||International Consultant|
|Languages Required :||English|
|Starting Date :|
(date when the selected candidate is expected to start)
|Duration of Initial Contract :||40 working days, and from January 2022 to October 2022|
|Expected Duration of Assignment :||40 working days, and from January 2022 to October 2022|
UNDP is committed to achieving workforce diversity in terms of gender, nationality and culture. Individuals from minority groups, indigenous groups and persons with disabilities are equally encouraged to apply. All applications will be treated with the strictest confidence.
UNDP does not tolerate sexual exploitation and abuse, any kind of harassment, including sexual harassment, and discrimination. All selected candidates will, therefore, undergo rigorous reference and background checks.
In recent years, Cambodia has made impressive gains in poverty reduction. According to official estimates, the poverty rate in 2014 was 13.5 per cent compared to 47.8 per cent in 2007. These gains in poverty reduction were achieved through a combination of economic development and better public service delivery for the poor. Nevertheless, Cambodia remains highly vulnerable to external and internal shocks due to structural weaknesses in Cambodia’s economy. A narrow economic base, lack of capital controls, a dollarized economy coupled with high levels of informality along with limited social safety nets mean that the gains made in human development could quickly recede in times of crisis. World Bank estimates that around 4.5 million people remain near-poor and are vulnerable to falling back into poverty when exposed to economic and other external shocks.
In order to achieve the goal of reaching upper middle-income country status by 2030, Cambodia needs to sustain pro-poor growth and to protect the gains in human development by advancing social protection. This can be achieved by extending social protection coverage to unprotected segments of the population and by increasing the level of benefits afforded to those who are covered.
According to ILO preliminary estimates from the most recent Labour Force Survey (LFS), informal employment accounted for 88 per cent of total employment, corresponding to 7.0 million persons. UNDP (2020) found that while the income of informal workers has dropped significantly during the Covid-19 pandemic, only 6 per cent of them reported having an IDPoor card as of October 2020. Significant efforts need to be made to extend the coverage to this missing middle of informal sector workers. Since women form the majority in the informal workforce, a more gender sensitive design of such coverage will be needed, while bringing up women workers’ needs and voices.
While the recent Royal Government’s Covid-19 Economic Recovery Plan highlighted formalization as a strategy in the post-Covid-19 recovery landscape, there seems to be a lack of consensus as regards the meaning, scope and dimension across the government line ministries. There are blurred perceptions about the extent to which the term formalization denotes business registration, tax contribution, social protection and/or skill development, amongst other dimensions. Thus, a common country strategy and consensus are equally essential to realistically and effectively narrow the gap of the “missing middle”.
The diversity of the informal economy must be recognized, and tailored approaches will need to be adopted to ensure effective coverage for all workers. The size of the informal economy also requires the adoption of a gradual expansion strategy based on a concrete action plan. In this respect, ILO is working on an overall approach towards formalization and this assignment will be a critical input towards the strategy.
One particular group of workers that are found in informal employment and therefore not covered by the National Social Security Fund are workers in Micro and Small Enterprises. While the social security system was initially mandatory for enterprises with 8 or more workers, this limitation was dropped in 2017. One of the conditions for an enterprise to register and enroll their workers in NSSF is to present a business license, which means that a significant part of workers cannot effectively enroll due to the status of their enterprise. This demonstrates the importance of an integrated approach to business and employment formalization.
The objective of this assignment is to contribute to the overall formalization of the informal economy by conducting research and produce a report aiming at:
Duties and Responsibilities
The International Expert with support from local expert is responsible for the following outputs:
Required Skills and Experience
Interested offeror must read the Individual Consultant (IC) Procurement Notice, which can be viewed at https://procurement-notices.undp.org/view_notice.cfm?notice_id=82752 more detail information about term of references, instructions to offeror, and to download the documents to be submitted in the offer through online.
UNDP reserves right to reject any applications that is incomplete.
Please be informed that we don’t accept application submitted via email.
Interested Offerors are required to submit application via UNDP jobsite system as the application screening and evaluation will be done through UNDP jobsite system. Please note that UNDP jobsite system allows only one uploading of application document, so please make sure that you merge all your documents into a single file. Your online applications submission will be acknowledged where an email address has been provided. If you do not receive an email acknowledgement within 24 hours of submission, your application may not have been received. In such cases, please resubmit the application, if necessary. Please combine all your documents into one (1) single PDF document as the system only allows to upload maximum one document.
Interested individual offeror must submit the following documents/information to demonstrate their qualifications:
(i) Letter of intertest explaining why they are most suitable for the work
(ii) Sample of work to prove superior written communication skills, with the ability to convey complex development concepts and recommendations
2. Financial proposal (Duly accomplished Letter of Confirmation of Interest and Availability using the template provided by UNDP)
3. Personal CV including past experience in similar projects and at least 3 references
Any request for clarification/additional information on this procurement notice shall be communicated in writing to UNDP office or send to email firstname.lastname@example.org and cc email@example.com . While the Procurement Unit would endeavor to provide information expeditiously, only requests receiving at least 5 working days prior to the submission deadline will be entertained. Any delay in providing such information will not be considered as a reason for extending the submission deadline. The UNDP's response (including an explanation of the query but without identifying the source of inquiry) will be posted in Individual Consultant (IC) Procurement Notice page as provided above. Therefore, all prospective Offerors are advised to visit the page regularly to make obtain update related to this Individual Consultant (IC).