- UNDP around the world
Many of UNDP's relationships with countries and territories on the ground exceed 60 years. Find details on our successes and ongoing work.
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Burkina Faso
- Cape Verde
- Central African Republic
- Congo (Dem. Republic of)
- Congo (Republic of)
- Costa Rica
- Côte d'Ivoire
- Democratic People's Republic of Korea
- Denmark (Rep. Office)
- Dominican Republic
- E.U (Rep. Office)
- El Salvador
- Equatorial Guinea
- Fiji (Multi-country Office)
- Finland (Rep. Office)
- Geneva (Rep. Office)
- Iraq (Republic of)
- Kosovo (as per UNSCR 1244)
- Lao PDR
- Mauritius & Seychelles
- Norway (Rep. Office)
- Papua New Guinea
- Programme of Assistance to the Palestinian People
- Russian Federation
- Samoa (Multi-country Office)
- São Tomé and Principe
- Saudi Arabia
- Sierra Leone
- South Africa
- South Sudan
- Sri Lanka
- Sweden (Rep. Office)
- The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
- Tokyo (Rep. Office)
- Trinidad and Tobago
- United Arab Emirates
- About Us
- News Centre
International Consultant to work on Adjusted Gender Pay Gap and Analysis of Gender Inequality in the Labour Market in Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA)
|Advertised on behalf of :|
|Location :||Home Based with possible travel|
|Application Deadline :||27-Jun-22 (Midnight New York, USA)|
|Type of Contract :||Individual Contract|
|Post Level :||International Consultant|
|Languages Required :||English|
|Starting Date :|
(date when the selected candidate is expected to start)
|Duration of Initial Contract :||5 months|
UNDP is committed to achieving workforce diversity in terms of gender, nationality and culture. Individuals from minority groups, indigenous groups and persons with disabilities are equally encouraged to apply. All applications will be treated with the strictest confidence.
UNDP does not tolerate sexual exploitation and abuse, any kind of harassment, including sexual harassment, and discrimination. All selected candidates will, therefore, undergo rigorous reference and background checks.
UN Women is grounded in working for the elimination of discrimination against women and girls, the empowerment of women, and the achievement of equality between women and men as partners and beneficiaries of development, human rights, humanitarian action and peace and security. Placing women’s rights at the centre of all its efforts, UN Women leads and coordinates United Nations system efforts to ensure that commitments on gender equality and gender mainstreaming translate into action in East and Southern Africa. Women across the globe represent the most deprived group of the population in spite of their paramount social and economic role, which is even more evident in East and South Africa region. Women have limited access to, and control over critical resources, as a result of social, cultural and economic norms. UN Women works through advocacy and policy work to recognize and realize equal pay for work of equal value. Equal pay means that all workers have the right to receive equal remuneration for work of equal value. While the concept is straightforward, what equal pay actually entails and how its applied in practice has proven to be difficult.
Women are less likely to participate in the labour market compared to their male counterparts due to several different factors, one being the burden of unpaid care work. However, when women do in fact participate in the labour market it is proven that they are more likely to receive lower incomes than men. Women only make approximately 77 cents for every dollar earned by men, globally. Income inequality between men and women persists in all countries and across all sectors, women’s work is deemed under-valued. Certain sectors that are deemed female dominated tend to be less valued and remunerated less although the work requires equal or even more skills than some male dominated highly remunerated sectors. This in turn leads to more women retiring into poverty.
The gender pay gap (GPG) is rooted in systemic inequalities. Women, particularly migrant women, are overrepresented in the informal sector around the globe. In Africa 44.2% of workers in the informal sector are women. Informal workers tend to fall outside of the domains of labour laws, trapping them in low-paying, unsafe working environments, without social benefits. These poor conditions for women workers perpetuate the gender pay gap.
Women’s disproportionate share of care and domestic work further marginalizes women’s position in the labour market. Women’s burden of unpaid care and domestic work implies that they have less time in the labour market than their male counterparts. This includes household tasks such as cooking, cleaning fetching firewood and water, and taking care of children and the elderly. In Africa, women spend 3.4 times more in unpaid care work than their male counterparts. The motherhood penalty is another determinate factor that plays a role in the pay inequality, that further, pushes women into informal economy, causal and part-time work, and tends to be larger in developing countries than in developed countries. Moreover, the pay inequality between women and men is also explained by restrictive and traditional gender roles as well as discriminatory hiring practices.
The calculation of the gender wage/pay gap will be two folded, covering the adjusted and unadjusted pay gap. Different organizations have developed methodologies to measure gender pay gap. Thus, for example, according to OECD gender pay gap (in unadjusted form) is measured as the difference between male and female earnings expressed as a percentage of male earnings. The extent of the gap varies with the position of men and women taken as reference in the distribution of earnings. According to EUROSTAT that compares statistical data and trends in GPG in the EU member states, the unadjusted Gender Pay Gap (GPG) represents the difference between average gross hourly earnings of male paid employees and of female paid employees as a percentage of average gross hourly earnings of male paid employees. Adjusted pay gap controls for the individual characteristics of the employee such as education, work experience occupation etc. The Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method should be applied in the study to explain inequality in the gender pay gap between men and women. To understand every aspect of inequality multiple regression models should be analysed in a way to decompose the inequality into contributing factors. The Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition is a statistical method that decomposes differences in mean outcomes across two groups into a part that is due to group differences in the levels of explanatory variables and a part that is due to differential magnitudes of regression coefficients.
Objectives of the assignment:
The objective of the assignment is to conduct the analysis and of the regional and country level adjusted Gender Pay Gap based on available national survey data (such as the Labour Force Survey, Household Survey etc). The consultant will also develop an analysis of the labour market structure identifying vertical and horizonal segregation within the economy as well as analysing trends in formal and informal (self-)employment where possible. The consultant will produce a regional analytical report as well as country level reports.
The following data is available (however the study will not be limited to these countries):
The consultant will be under the direct supervision of the Regional Policy Specialist for Women’s Economic Empowerment (WEE) and will undertake the assignment in close coordination with UN Women colleagues in the Statistics Teams as well country level WEE specialists.
Duties and Responsibilities
Scope of Work:
The objectives of this consultancy assignment are to compile available data, assess and analyse the evidence available and conduct an analysis on the gender pay gap in ESAR. The consultant will use the overall methodology used for UN Women’s report on the gender pay gap in Georgia and Armenia. These reports will serve as the blueprint for the consultant, together with additional comments and adjustments from the UN Women WEE team.
Duties and Responsibilities
The consultant will be responsible for the following:
Please notice that the dates could be updated by UN Women.
Required Skills and Experience
Required Skills and Experience
Please attach a completed P11 to your application. Kindly note that applications without a completed and signed UN Women P-11 form will be treated as incomplete and will not be considered for further assessment.
UN Women Personal History form (P-11) can be downloaded from http://www.unwomen.org/en/about-us/employment
At UN Women, we are committed to creating a diverse and inclusive environment of mutual respect. UN Women recruits, employs, trains, compensates, and promotes regardless of race, religion, color, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, age, ability, national origin, or any other basis covered by appropriate law. All employment is decided on the basis of qualifications, competence, integrity and organizational need.
If you need any reasonable accommodation to support your participation in the recruitment and selection process, please include this information in your application.
UN Women has a zero-tolerance policy on conduct that is incompatible with the aims and objectives of the United Nations and UN Women, including sexual exploitation and abuse, sexual harassment, abuse of authority and discrimination. All selected candidates will be expected to adhere to UN Women’s policies and procedures and the standards of conduct expected of UN Women personnel and will therefore undergo rigorous reference and background checks. (Background checks will include the verification of academic credential(s) and employment history. Selected candidates may be required to provide additional information to conduct a background check.)