The Darfur region of Sudan has suffered from protracted conflict since 2003, resulting in the internal displacement of approximately 2.1 million individuals, the highest in the country, creating a vacuum in the provision of basic services by local authorities, and contributing to the deterioration of social cohesion. Within this context, West Darfur state has proven to be particularly volatile. In 2018, it was thought that the wider Darfur conflict had relatively eased throughout much of West Darfur, resulting in the full withdrawal of the United Nations – African Union Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) from the state in May 2019, as a part of the peacekeeping mission’s planned drawdown from Sudan. In 2021, over 300 people have been killed in the fighting, and approximately 115,000 have been displaced, in El Geneina alone.This follows bouts of intercommunal violence in both El Geneina and Beida in 2020. Since December 2019, El Geneina, Beida, and Kreinik localities in West Darfur have re-emerged as conflict hotspots, with significant violence centered around the state capital, El Geneina town. Thus, since the withdrawal of UNAMID, West Darfur has witnessed repeated cycles of violence and displacement.
Conflict in West Darfur is largely rooted in issues related to land usage, access, and ownership. The prolonged displacement of IDPs in urban centres is exacerbated by the lack of sustainable solutions to Housing, Land and Propety (HLP) issues, and often contributes to inter-communal tensions in and around IDP camps. HLP issues also hinder sustainable return of IDPs to their areas of origin or relocation to alternative locations. A multi-pronged approach of support is necessary towards addressing the three durable solutions identified by local authorities: (1) local integration in the areas of displacement; (2) return to areas of origin; and (3) relocation to alternative sites.
Duties and Responsibilities
UN-Habitat and UNHCR propose a 36-month project that will contribute to existing peacebuilding efforts in West Darfur state, Sudan, through a comprehensive, area-based approach to recurrent, conflict-induced displacement in El Geneina, Kreinik, and Beida localities. The proposed interventions aim to address key issues impeding the realization of human rights in West Darfur, including the right to adequate housing.
Clarifying HLP rights in the context of West Darfur requires an acceptance among key stakeholders of a non-conventional, multi-stakeholder, community-based approach to recognize various types of land tenure, by capturing and documenting all types of tenure, including informal tenure. Demarcation of villages and individual land plots is essential in clarifying customary HLP rights and can facilitate access to these rights through awareness raising and sensitization. At the same time, the realization of HLP rights also necessitates HLP-related legal counselling and assistance for individuals who already possess government-issued ownership documentation for land or shelter. Given that individuals affected by conflict-induced displacement often lack identity documents, provision of civil documentation is also needed to support IDPs in recording their HLP ownership rights in public registers. However, in order to be sustainable, such HLP-focused initiatives at the local and community levels need to be complemented by policy changes at the national level. Thus, by bridging gaps in the understandings of thematic, HLP-related issues throughout Darfur, this project aims to further the awareness and capacity of land stakeholders at the national, state, and locality levels through a series of HLP reports, which would ideally influence HLP policy.
In addition, mapping and profiling settlements is a necessary step when determining return and relocation sites for IDPs and preparing those sites. In order to ensure that any potential return and relocation would be a sustainable and durable solution, such profiling can help to identify existing public services and infrastructure in potential areas and supporting planning for such services and infrastructure in case of gap. Thus, supporting the mapping and preparation of return and relocation sites can help mitigate tensions and conflicts over land in the destinations of IDP relocation and origin/return, and enable their (re)integration into these locations.
Meanwhile, in order to contribute to the overall protective environment in areas of local integration and origin/return, which in turn will enhance the effectiveness of HLP-related interventions, this project also promotes social cohesion, dialogue, and confidence-building among IDPs, returnees, non-displaced communities, and nomadic communities. Social cohesion amongst communities can also be enhanced through the provision of basic services or public facilities which can be jointly managed and utilized. Such efforts are expected to lay the groundwork for the process of clarifying HLP issues among different, and oftentimes conflicting, communities.
Finally, by building skills for and showcasing a cost-effective, environmentally friendly self-help construction method, the project expects to enable scaling up of the self-help construction at the local level, which can encourage IDP return, relocation, and (re)integration. By supporting communities to address their housing needs, this project aims to address one of the key issues hindering the achievement of durable solutions for IDPs.
The project aims to achieve four outcomes as outlined below:
- Outcome 1 Peaceful coexistence is enhanced among IDPs, returnees, nomads, and non-displaced communities in conflict affected areas, including areas of displacement and return
- Outcome 2: Peaceful and sustainable relocation, return and security of tenure enhanced by access to effective mechanisms that clarify housing, land and property (HLP) rights in compliance with relevant international human rights standards.
- Outcome 3: Self-reliance of IDPs, returnees, nomads, and non-displaced communities, particularly male and female youth, enhanced through capacity development on self-help reconstruction using ISSB, which will inform the national and state housing policy framework
- Outcome 4: Durable solutions for IDPs, returnees, nomads, and non-displaced communities in West Darfur advanced through enhancement of Housing, Land, and Property (HLP) rights and improved access to civil documentation.
Objectives of the baseline survey
The main objective of the baseline survey is to assess and set the baselines for project performance indicators which will form the foundation for set targets.
The baseline will lay the foundation for regular, ongoing monitoring to measure achievement against process, outputs, and outcome performance indicators. This will enable assessment of progress on implementation, assess any early signs of effectiveness and document any lessons learned. The baseline will inform the project starting point and implementation and will provide important context necessary for the final evaluation. The baseline will also generate actionable recommendations that are clearly connected to the assessment findings and project objectives and directly inform programming
The baseline will target the project locations in West Darfur States. El Genaina, Beida, Kirink
Methodology of the Study:
Owing to the fragility of the context, and putting into consideration the principle of Do No Harm, the baseline survey will be conducted in a conflict sensitive manner and the following methodologies will be employed:
- Desk review of key literature on Peaceful co-existence, community land tenure, city profiling and civil documentation status
- Quantitative data collection and analysis in target localities of Geneina, Kreinik Beida. This may include initial spatial planning data where possible.
- Qualitative data collection (Focus Group Discussions, and Key informant interviews) in target localities of Geneina, Kreinik and Beida
- Design appropriate baseline assessment data collection tools and overall methodology in consultation with UN-Habitat and UNHCR.
- Submit an inception report: including clear methodology, sampling framework and data collection tools, workplan and a list of inclusive respondent groups
- Perform desk review and primary data collection, in the three target localities, as outlined in the inception report using agreed data collection tools.
- Provide oversight of the data entry, data coding, and data analysis processes
- Ensure all performance outcome and output indicators in the Results Framework (Annex 1: synthesized version) are measured and have a baseline value.
- Prepare a draft report including revised Results framework with baseline values for all indicators and revised targets accordingly.
- Organise consultations (validation workshops) with project stakeholders to review the draft report and include their comments and recommendations.
- Prepare a final report, including revised results framework with baseline values for all indicators (40 pages maximum)
- Contractor will work under the supervision of UN-Habitat in collaboration with UNHCR.
Duration of the Work:
The total duration of this consultancy is expected to be 51 working days spreading over 90 days
UN- Habitat Office, El Geneina, Sudan.
The consultant should submit a budget with detailed breakdown including consultant daily rate, enumerators fees, travel cost, field movements, enumerators’ training, data collection, analysis and reporting. The budget should be submitted together with other required application documents.
Criteria for Selection of the Best Offer
The offers received from the candidates will be evaluated using combined scoring method. The combined scoring method assesses the offers with technical merits of the proposals – where the qualifications and methodology will be weighted a max. of 70%, and later combined with the price offer which will be weighted a max of 30%.
Technical Assessment Criteria
Sector expertise: Proven competencies in statistics, field-based consultations, facilitating meetings/discussions (including online), and analytical report writing. Strong quantitative and qualitative research skills, especially design and analysis of studies involving focus group discussions and key informant interviews.
Project management and experience: the ability to deliver project objectives, demonstrated experience in project monitoring and evaluation of at least 5 years, including collecting data in interviews, surveys and focus group discussions; conflict analysis and conflict sensitive programming; research and analysis on peacebuilding
Local experience and presence: previous and/or ongoing programmes in Darfur; local knowledge and experience engaging non-displaced, nomads, IDPs, returnees, and other persons of concern in Darfur
Previous relevant work experience with United Nations or other
multilateral/bilateral development assistance agencies.
The candidates scoring 70% and above (49/70) in the technical assessment, will be considered technically qualified, and only then will their price proposals be reviewed and compared for the assessment of overall ranking of the proposals. Those obtaining lower than 49 points (or lesser than 70%) will be technically non-responsive proposals; price proposals of such candidate will not be compared.
Assessment of the Price Proposals (30 Points) or 30%
The lowest priced bid from among the technically qualified Offerors will obtain the full marks of 30 points in the price proposal. Price proposals of remaining qualified bidders will be prorated against the lowest priced bid using the following formula to derive the marks in their price proposal:
Marks obtained by a Bidder = Lowest Priced Bid (amount) / Bid of the Offeror (amount) X 30 (Full Marks)
Award of the Contract/Award Criteria:
The contract will be awarded to the candidate (bidder) whose proposal obtains the highest cumulative marks (points) when the marks obtained in technical and price proposals are aggregated together.
To apply, interested candidates are requested to submit the following two documents through this website:
- Curriculum vitae.
- A technical proposal together with a financial proposal for the completion of the deliverables and a short cover letter.
For any inquiries
Annex 1: Synthesized version of Results Framework
OUTCOMES, OUTPUTS, AND INDICATORS
Outcome 1: Peaceful coexistence is enhanced among IDPs, returnees, nomads, and non-displaced communities in conflict affected areas, including areas of displacement and return.
- A. % of women (disaggregated by age and tribe) in target areas who report increased participation in community-based structures contributing to peaceful coexistence
- B. % of community members (disaggregated by age, gender, and tribe) in target areas who report positive interactions with individuals from disputing communities
- C. % of community members (disaggregated by age, gender, and tribe) in target areas who report positive engagement with police
Output 1.1 Dialogue and collaborative problem solving between IDPs, returnees, nomads, and non-displaced communities enhanced through community-based structures and reconciliation events.
- i. # of inclusive CRCs, including with representation of women and youth, established and supported
- ii. # of disputes resolved by CRCs.
- iii. # of community-level dialogue and reconciliation events implemented, including with the involvement of women and youth.
- iv. # of high-level intercommunal dialogue and reconciliation events implemented, including with the involvement of women and youth.
Output 1.2 Social cohesion and inter-communal tolerance promoted through youth-led community art and recreational micro-projects.
- i. # of youth-led consultations with target communities, including with the active leadership and participation of young women.
- ii. # of youth-led community art and/or recreational micro-projects implemented.
Output 1.3 Relations between police and local communities improved through increased engagement of community members (i.e., IDPs, returnees, nomads, and non-displaced) using community-oriented policing approach.
- i.# of gender-sensitive capacity building trainings on Community-Oriented Policing (COP) delivered
- ii.# of COP committees, including with representation of women and youth, established and supported
Outcome 2: Peaceful and sustainable relocation, return and security of tenure, enhanced by access to effective mechanisms that clarify housing, land and property (HLP) rights in compliance with relevant international human rights standards. SDG11: target 11.1 ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services, and upgrade slums
- A.% of returnees and IDPs (disaggregated by gender and age) with secured tenure who have confidence for the prospect of return or peaceful integration.
- B.Percentage (%) of IDP’s, returnees, non-displaced communities and nomads (disaggregated by gender and age) with positive perceptions of the way the use and access to the land has been clarified, as well as the appropriateness of the selected sites for relocation.
Output 2.1: Guiding principles and policy on IDPs return, reintegration and resettlements developed and adopted among key stakeholders, clarifying Housing, Land, and Property (HLP) rights for Krinding IDP camp population.
- i.Guiding principles and policy on IDPs reintegration and resettlement developed and adopted by the State and Locality government
- ii.# State and Locality authorities personnel trained on HLP issues
- iii.% of IDP’s, returnees, non-displaced communities and nomads (disaggregated by gender and age) who report improved understandings on HLP rights
Output 2.2: Geo-spatial mapping of El Geneina, Krenik and Beida Localities is conducted and incorporated in the land management system and processes of the local authorities to help identify appropriate sites, in support of sustainable return, relocation and integration of IDPs.
- i.# of Locality-level geo-spatial mappings done.
- ii.# of sustainable relocation action plans developed with relocation sites selected
- iii.# of land and urban planning stakeholders trained on spatial mapping techniques
- iv.# of local authorities with the geo-spatial mapping incorporated in the planning system and procedures
Output 2.3: Return, relocation and reintegration of IDP’s supported, through settlement profiling in agreed relocation sites in El Geneina, Kreinik and Beida Localities and rural return areas, with public services and infrastructure planning.
- i.# of settlement profiles completed and validated.
- ii.# of community action plans for public services and infrastructure developed and validated
Output 2.4: Land tenure is clarified in a non-traditional method, and recognized in the demarcation of villages, sites and plots in the agreed relocation sites and rural return areas, to be recorded in a digital form in the government Land Information System (LIS)
- i.# of sites and villages where STDM is applied
- ii.# of sketch mapping and plot demarcation digitized and documented in Land Information System
- iii.# of personnel trained on the application of STDM, sketch mapping, and spatial data collection techniques with software installed for further use.
Output 2.5: HLP rights practices in Krinding contributed to the national HLP frameworks
- i.HLP practices of Krinding documented and shared with relevant stakeholders
Outcome 3: Self-reliance of IDPs, returnees, nomads, and non-displaced communities, particularly male and female youth, enhanced through capacity development on self-help reconstruction using ISSB, which will inform the national and state housing policy framework
- i.% of IDPs, returnees, nomads, and non-displaced households considering ISSB self-help construction as a viable option for their housing
- ii.# of trained IDPs, returnees, nomads, and non-displaced youth (male and female) who put in practice the acquired ISSB skills in the construction of pilot housing and other structures
- iii.% of targeted community members (disaggregated by age, gender, and tribe) who indicate improved social cohesion due to utilization of shared public facilities by different communities
Output 3.1: IDP, returnee, nomadic, and non-displaced male and female youth acquired skills for Interlocking Stabilized Soil Block (ISSB) production and construction technique for the self-help housing (re)construction
- i.# of IDPs, returnees, nomads, and non-displaced youth (disaggregated by gender and age) trained as trainers of ISSB production techniques
- ii.# of IDPs, returnees, nomads, and non-displaced youth (disaggregated by gender and age) trained as trainers on ISSB construction techniques including ferro-cement channel for roofing
- iii.# of IDPs, returnees, nomads, and non-displaced youth (disaggregated by gender and age) trained on ISSB production and construction techniques and ferro-cement channel for roofing
Output 3.2: Trained male and female youth engaged in (re)construction of self-help housing - using ISSB technology - for the most vulnerable IDP, returnee, nomadic and non-displaced households.
- i. # of self-help pilot housing units (re)constructed and handed over to most vulnerable households (beneficiaries disaggregated by gender, age, and vulnerability factors (female-headed households, disability,
- ii.Small scale community-based enterprise for ISSB production and construction established
Output 3.3: Diverse community members (IDPs, returnees, nomads, and non-displaced communities) in target areas of return and/or local integration brought together through the identification and construction of shared public facilities.
- i.# of shared, public facilities identified and constructed
Output 3.4: Self-help housing construction by ISSB practices reflected to the national housing frameworks
- i.Lessons learned from the ISSB self-help housing construction documented and shared with relevant stakeholders
Outcome 4: Durable solutions for IDPs, returnees, nomads, and non-displaced communities in West Darfur advanced through enhancement of Housing, Land, and Property (HLP) rights and improved access to civil documentation.
- i.% of national, humanitarian, and development actors (disaggregated by gender, sector, and organization) who indicate improved awareness and understanding of Housing, Land, and Property (HLP) issues in Darfur.
- ii.% of community members (disaggregated by age, gender, and tribe) in target areas who report improved awareness of HLP rights and/or civil documentation.
Output 4.1: National, humanitarian, and development policies on Housing, Land, and Property (HLP) rights in Darfur enhanced through thematic studies and policy roundtables on HLP restitution and compensation; regularization of IDP camps/sites; and women’s HLP rights.
- i. # of HLP-related reports published and disseminated
- ii. # of HLP-related roundtable discussions held, including with participation of women and youth
Output 4.2: Realisation of individual HLP rights, as well as provision of civil documentation, supported through information, counselling, and legal assistance.
- iii. # of trainings for the West Darfur Civil Registry
- iv. # of awareness-raising sessions on civil documentation
- v. # of individuals, disaggregated by age and gender, who receive counselling and legal assistance on civil documentation
- vi. # of awareness-raising sessions on HLP
- vii.# of individuals, disaggregated by age and gender, who receive counselling and legal assistance on HLP.
The consultant is required to respect the following Ethical Principles:
- Comprehensive and systematic inquiry: Consultant should make the most of the existing information and full range of stakeholders available at the time of the review. Consultant should conduct systematic, data-based inquiries.
- Competence: Consultant should possess the abilities and skills and experience appropriate to undertake the tasks proposed and should practice within the limits of his or her professional training and competence.
- Honesty and integrity: Consultant should be transparent with the contractor/constituent about: any conflict of interest, any change made in the negotiated project plan and the reasons why those changes were made, any risk that certain procedures or activities produce misleading review information.
- Respect for people: Consultant respect the security, dignity and self-worth of respondents, program participants. Consultant has the responsibility to be sensitive to and respect differences amongst participants in culture, religion, gender, disability, age and ethnicity.
- Commitment to adhering to principals of conflict sensitivity in all data collection methods and tools, including extending these through appropriate training to enumerators
Required Skills and Experience
Qualifications of the Successful Individual Contractor
- Proficiency in English and Arabic (written and spoken)
- Minimum of 5 years of experience in project M&E and conflict sensitive programming
- Experience in conflict analysis and expertise in doing research/analysis on peacebuilding.
- Strong quantitative and qualitative research skills, especially design and analysis of studies involving focus group discussions and key informant interviews and household questionnaires.
- Basic understandings of spatial planning or land issues is an asset.
- Experience in gender analysis and the development of gender sensitive indicators.
- Strong communication and writing skills.
- Contextual knowledge of and experience working in Sudan. Knowledge of Darfur is an asset.