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2644 SEESAC Research expert - International/National
|Location :||Home-based, SERBIA|
|Application Deadline :||06-Aug-23 (Midnight New York, USA)|
|Type of Contract :||Individual Contract|
|Post Level :||International Consultant|
|Languages Required :||English|
|Expected Duration of Assignment :||September 2023 - September 2024 (Up to 95 working days)|
UNDP is committed to achieving workforce diversity in terms of gender, nationality and culture. Individuals from minority groups, indigenous groups and persons with disabilities are equally encouraged to apply. All applications will be treated with the strictest confidence.
UNDP does not tolerate sexual exploitation and abuse, any kind of harassment, including sexual harassment, and discrimination. All selected candidates will, therefore, undergo rigorous reference and background checks.
The purpose of this consultancy is to provide support to the implementation of the IPA/2021/425-067 project “Support for enhancing the fight against the illegal possession, misuse, and trafficking of small arms and light weapons (SALW) in the Western Balkans.”
The objective is to ensure quality assurance by providing relevant inputs for the regional research on factors fueling demand and misuse of firearms in the Western Balkans i.e., the following six jurisdictions – Albania, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Kosovo*, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia by developing a desk review and systematic literature review; and by assisting development of the instruments for the research.
Once the research is finished, the expert should compile the results from the comprehensive research and provide synthesis report with practical recommendations to inform prevention and reduction measures, identifying both risk and protective factors that influence demand for firearms.
The South Eastern and Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SEESAC) is a joint initiative of the UNDP and the Regional Cooperation Council. As such, it is an integral part of UNDP’s work in the Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (ECIS) region and has, since 2002, worked primarily to strengthen the capacities of national and regional stakeholders to control and reduce the proliferation and misuse of small arms and light weapons, and thus contribute to enhanced stability, security, and development in South-Eastern and Eastern Europe. SEESAC also has a distinguished record of working closely with national Ministries to mainstream gender equality and this aspect will remain central to the program.
Going forward, SEESAC will maintain its long-standing work in South-Eastern Europe the small arms and light weapons and gender equality in security sector reform fields, under the framework of the RCC. The programme will continue and, where possible, scale up the innovative work it has pioneered in fostering confidence between rule of law providers within South East Europe, as well as in the fields of innovation, security and technology. In addition, SEESAC will increasingly focus on sharing the capacity it has developed over the years through line ministries and UNDP offices in order to address community and other security needs beyond the sub-region and provide guidance on introducing gender equality into the security sector.
The overall objective of the project is to contribute to international peace and security by combatting the threat posed by the widespread accumulation and illicit trafficking in small arms and light weapons and their ammunition in and from SEE. At the same time, it enhances regional stability by working within the framework of the RCC and in partnership with other relevant initiatives. The project is directly contributing to the implementation of the EU Security Strategy, the EU SALW Strategy, the Arms Trade Treaty, the UN Programme of Action, the International Tracing Instrument, UN Firearms Protocol, UN Security Council Resolution 1325 and will specifically enhance regional cooperation in combating the threat posed by the spread of SALW and their ammunition. Specifically, the project is contributing to the implementation of the South East Europe Regional Implementation Plan Combatting the Proliferations and Impact of Small Arms and Light Weapons and the Roadmap for a sustainable solution to the illegal possession, misuse and trafficking of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) and their ammunition in the Western Balkans by 2024. The project results are also directly contributing to the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goal 16 on peaceful and just societies, in particular targets 16.1 (Significantly reduce all forms of violence and death rate everywhere) and 16.4 (significantly reduce illicit arms flows).
SEESAC is implementing the Council Decision 2019/2111 in support of SEESAC disarmament and arms control activities in South-East Europe in the framework of the EU Strategy to combat illicit accumulation and trafficking of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) and their ammunition, and the Council Decision 2018/1788 in support of the implementation of the Regional Roadmap on combating illicit arms trafficking in the Western Balkans. In addition to this, SEESAC is implementing the second phase of the Strengthening of Regional Cooperation on Gender Mainstreaming in Security Sector Reform in the Western Balkans project.
Further, with the support of European Union, represented by the European Commission, Directorate-General for Neighborhood and Enlargement Negotiations, through the Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance (IPA II), SEESAC is implementing the project Support for enhancing the fight against the illegal possession, misuse and trafficking of small arms and light weapons (SALW) in the Western Balkans - IPA/2021 - 425/067.
The overall objective of this project is to enhance the ability of the Western Balkans to fight against illicit possession, misuse and trafficking of SALW and their ammunition, in line with the Western Balkans SALW Control Roadmap. The project will contribute to two specific objectives through five outputs:
Specific Objective 1: Strategic and operational capacity of WB authorities to conduct firearms investigations and exchange information within the region and with the EU on illegal possession, misuse and trafficking of SALW and their ammunition strengthened:
Output 1: Network of functioning FFPs in the WB established;
Output 2: Capacities of authorities in Western Balkans to conduct crime scene investigation in accordance with relevant EU good practices and guidelines strengthened;
Specific Objective 2: Response to factors fueling demand and misuse of firearms in WB increased:
Output 3: Knowledge of factors fueling demand and misuse of firearms in WB enhanced;
Output 4: Awareness and operational capacity among key beneficiaries raised; and
Output 5: Capacities for mainstreaming gender into SALW control by institutions in WB strengthened.
Within Output 3, the project will particularly seek to deepen the knowledge of factors fuelling demand and misuse of firearms in the Western Balkans through regionwide research.
Within such context, the project specifically aims to enhance the knowledge of factors fueling demand and misuse of firearms as a key precondition for an evidence-based small arms control measure and prevention of adverse effects on firearms proliferation and misuse on Western Balkans citizens, both women and men.
Many factors can influence the demand for firearms in the Western Balkans. Political, economic, social, gender and cultural dynamics all play a role. Trust in public institutions - including law enforcement and criminal justice - are likewise significant. Individual perceptions, attitudes, education, socio-economic status, experiences, and peer networks impact personal and collective preferences. The content and enforcement of firearms-related laws and arms control measures can incentivize or disincentivize the procurement of firearms. Even the availability of small arms can influence the willingness (or not) to acquire them.
According to the regional SALW Survey conducted by SEESAC in cooperation with the Western Balkans authorities and covering period 2012-2016, the findings on distribution of firearms showed that civilian possession of legal firearms throughout the region increased during this period, with the number of registered firearms, firearm license-holders and firearm license applicants increasing in most jurisdictions, reflecting a rising demand for legal firearms. The number of legal firearms held by civilians increased over the five-year period, with increases ranging from 3.9% in Montenegro to 26.8% in Bosnia and Herzegovina and men owned 97.2% of all legally owned firearms. Hunting and personal protection/safety were the top two most common reasons given for the acquisition of firearms in 2016 across the region, with hunting dominating in some jurisdictions (Albania, North Macedonia and Kosovo), and personal safety in others (Bosnia and Hercegovina, Montenegro and Serbia).
Based on the same SALW Survey, findings on impact showed that firearms were misused to commit a range of criminal acts across the region. In Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Serbia, firearms were misused the most in the context of unlawful manufacture, possession, carrying, and sale of firearms and explosives, while in Kosovo, they were misused for causing of general danger. In Montenegro, firearms were most often used to commit criminal acts against property, with burglary being the most frequent criminal offence committed with firearms. The majority of criminal offences were committed with illegal firearms and highest number of these incidents were recorded in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Kosovo. Even though men account for the majority of homicide victims across the region, firearm-related deaths are proportionately frequent for both women and men. Firearms use in domestic violence was reported as widespread in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro and North Macedonia, with the majority of murders that took place in the domestic context involving firearms, which reflects the high lethality of firearms in this context.
Additionally, a sizeable percentage of suicides were reported to be committed with firearms during the survey period, ranging from 43.9% in Bosnia and Herzegovina to 13,8% in North Macedonia. In 2018 and 2019, at least 459 people died by firearm suicides in Western Balkans only. Firearm related suicides as all firearms incidents are also age related. It was noted that 6% of all victims of firearms accidents in the last two years were underage and their access to firearms was directly linked to unsafe and inadequate firearms storage.
One of the recommendations coming out of the SALW Survey for each jurisdiction, is to further deepen the research and go beyond the quantitative data, in order to shed light on how the widespread availability of small arms shapes the demand for it and to obtain a better understanding of the factors and mechanisms which fuel demand and shape risk taking behaviors involving firearms, including those related to criminality.
The outcome of this research shall be used to inform policy making, support development of tailor-made awareness campaigns, which can include public information regarding newly adopted or amended legal framework; awareness aiming demand reduction, awareness on legalization and voluntary surrender initiatives in order to take weapons out of the illegal market, but also prevention of gender based violence, celebratory shootings or other issues identified, such as youth joining serious or organized crime groups.
Increasing the knowledge of factors fueling demand and misuse of firearms in the Western Balkans is also a necessary precondition for adequate formulation of awareness, advocacy and outreach activities aimed at reduction of the supply, demand and misuse of firearms under Goal 4 of the Roadmap.
The overall research will made use of both quantitative and qualitative methods including different components such as desk review and systematic literature review; online perception research to get insight towards firearms as well as a wide range of interviews/focus groups with relevant stakeholders (such as SALW Commissions, investigators, police officers, representatives of relevant ministries, organization promoting gender equality, staff working in prisons and juvenile delinquency centers, teachers and to the extent possible perpetrators). In addition, it will include research on online platforms and internet content related to firearms, in order to assess how the open public web is shaping motivation to acquire and use firearms.
The research will cover Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo*, North Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia.
*For the United Nations Development Programme, references to Kosovo shall be understood to be in the context of Security Council resolution 1244 (1999). For the European Union, this designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244/1999 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo declaration of independence.
Duties and Responsibilities
Scope of work
Under the overall direction of SEESAC Project Manager and in consultation with the SEESAC Chief Technical Advisor, the Consultant will be expected to perform the following tasks:
 Individual engaged on the advertised position shall be considered illegible to apply, as an individual or part of a team, for the award of the contract(s) for the development of the methodologies.
 Individual engaged on the advertised position shall be considered illegible to apply, as an individual or part of a team, for the award of the contract(s) for the development of the reports.
The following deliverables will be required from the Consultant:
All deliverables will have to be in English language and quality reviewed, approved and accepted by the SEESAC Project Manager. Payment will be made upon acceptance of deliverables.
Required Skills and Experience
DOCUMENTS TO BE INCLUDED WHEN SUBMITTING THE PROPOSALS.
Qualified and interested candidates are asked to submit their applications via UNDP Web site: UNDP in Serbia, under the section "Jobs" no later than 06 August 2023.
Applications should include:
In order to apply please merge above listed documents into a single PDF file. The system does not allow for more than one attachment to be uploaded.
The shortlisted candidates may be asked to provide copies of diplomas and any other certificates providing evidence of their education and experience in relevant fields.
Any request for clarification must be sent by standard electronic communication to the e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org. The procuring UNDP entity will respond by standard electronic mail and will send response, including an explanation of the query without identifying the source of inquiry, to all consultants.
The financial proposal shall specify a total lump sum amount (USD), and payment terms around specific and measurable (qualitative and quantitative) deliverables (i.e. whether payments fall in instalments or upon completion of the entire contract). Payments are based upon output, i.e. upon delivery of the services specified in the TOR. In order to assist the requesting unit in the comparison of financial proposals, the financial proposal will include a breakdown of this lump sum amount (including travel, per diems, and number of anticipated working days).
The assignment is home-based therefore no travel envisaged under these Terms of Reference.
In the case of engagement of Civil servants under IC contract modality a no-objection letter should be provided by the Government entity. The ‘no-objection’ letter must also state that the employer formally certifies that their employees are allowed to receive short-term consultancy assignment from another entity without being on “leave-without-pay” status (if applicable), and include any conditions and restrictions on granting such permission, if any. If the previous is not applicable ‘leave-without-pay’ confirmation should be submitted.
Engagement of Government Officials and Employees
(i) A “No-objection” letter in respect of the individual is received from the Government employing him/her, and;
(ii) The individual must provide an official documentation from his/her employer formally certifying his or her status as being on “official leave without pay” for the duration of the IC.