In Sudan, approximately 35% of the population has access to electricity. However, it is not reliable and experiences regular power outages. Hydro-power is the largest share of energy generation. The potential to expand hydro-power to meet future needs is limited. Sudan does not have significant oil or gas production and as a result will have to turn to importation of fossil fuels to meet future energy needs. Climate change threatens to affect rainfall patterns on which Sudan relies on water that generates its hydro-power. This further emphasises the need for Sudan to diversify its energy sources. The wind energy project, financially supported by the Global Environment Facility (GEF), seeks to address these problems by promoting the generation of electric power from wind energy in Sudan.
Sudan currently has a power generation capacity of about 3,000 MW, with no wind generation capacity and no grid-connected solar capacity. The Government owns 5,984 km of 220 kV transmission lines and 965 km of 500 kV transmission lines. In 2012, the power consumption per capita was 233 kWh per year. There are no independent power producers (IPPs) in the country, though initiatives are underway to promote private investment in power generation. This project seeks to support those initiatives where they relate to wind power.
In geographical terms, the project is targeting Dongola as the baseline location to be followed by the Red Sea coast as the first replication area. In the meantime, meteorological data collection is underway in other potential areas covering the Northern State and Western Darfur which are the future targets in the long-term planning of wind power application in Sudan.
The Ministry of Water Resources, Irrigation, and Electricity (MWRIE) is the prime body responsible for the Generation, Transmission and Distribution of electric power in Sudan. Recently it has undergone major structuring whereby the process of power generation, transmission and distribution were separated and each run and managed by a state-owned company in a first step to privatize the power sector in the country in future. MWRIE has conducted many resource assessment studies such as country wide Wind ATLAS, Solar ATLAS and biomass resource assessment in addition to many feasibility studies for grid connected projects consisting wind, solar and biogas power generation.
In parallel, the Electricity Regulatory Authority (ERA) is preparing the legal and regulatory frameworks to ensure clarity and transparency of the sector (Energy Efficiency law has been drafted). ERA has prepared Sudan Grid Code for transmission and Sub Codes for Distribution, Renewable Energy, and Nuclear. ERA has also commenced a separate study on the cost of electricity and the tariff structure for Sudan power system including the Feed-in Tariff, the first draft of which has been issued. However, the project will review the existing FiT and revise the document as necessary in consultation with the ERA and MWRIE. The Wind Energy Project endeavors to prepare FiT to achieve the following objectives:
- Enhance the understanding of policy makers on the economic, social and environmental benefits of renewable energies;
- Showcase viability of RE technologies and of PV, Wind, Biomass (direct combustion and biogas) and mini-hydro systems to policy makers, regulators and utilities;
- Provide an overview on available policies and regulatory mechanisms including implications on public budgets to policy makers, regulators and utilities to promote on-and off - grid electricity generation through PV, Wind, Biomass (direct combustion and biogas) and mini-hydro systems;
- Increase the understanding of regulators in the determination of viable electricity tariffs for PV, Wind, Biomass (direct combustion and biogas) and mini-hydro systems, and for the significance of stable tariffs to increase access in rural areas and address power deficit in the national grid;
- Increase the understanding of utilities on the contribution of IPPs in reducing shortfalls and disruptions in electricity supply through PV, Wind, Biomass (direct combustion and biogas) and mini-hydro systems;
- Build an understanding of the power market in the private sector, contribute to the modernization of the economy, create sustainable markets and jobs, and to provide best Practices.
This assignment aims to support the ERA in its endeavor to revise, develop and maintain a robust Feed-in-tariff system (FiT) for both off-grid (including hybrid systems Renewable Energy and Diesel) and grid-connected RE power generation indicating the prices and the payments mechanisms including the financial details, within the term of the project, the cash flow, and other important financial parameters, taking into consideration the project size and the pertinent conditions.
Duties and Responsibilities
UNDP is seeking the services of an independent International Consultant (IC) with vast experience in the development of national FiT for the renewable energy based power generation systems. The scope of the consultancy should include, but not limited to:
- The previous studies concerning FiT prepared by ERA should be revised and may be included as a part of the study (appendix 1);
- Identify the methodology for determining FiT based on the public and consumer benefits from the exported energy to the grid. Considering the network options and costs on electricity;
- To estimate the fair, real cost including the financial details within the period of the project, the cash flow, and the payments due;
- To suggest an attractive FiT to encourage the public to invest in grid-connected projects as well as to propose special FiT for off-grid electricity generation, including hybrid systems, to increase access in rural areas;
- To propose how FiT payment mechanisms, work (structure, unit measure, gross or net payment, mandatory or other);
- Identify any barriers or constraints (technical, market, regulatory or otherwise) to monetizing the value of exported energy to the Grid in the current electricity system, and options to address those barriers;
- To accomplish the financial risk assessment, and the financial sensitivity analysis related to the projects that may occur during the FiT project term;
- Identify the appropriate review mechanisms and timeframes (installed capacities, corresponding rates and interval of FiT reassessment);
- Identify capacity building development requirement for ERA and The Ministry related departments to have suitable knowledge for a theoretical and practical electricity economics and costs methodologies to enable them to update and manage the FiT and advice on best training institution for them;
- Provide training workshop on FiT development and application for ERA and MWRIE staff in Khartoum.
- Demonstrates integrity by modeling the UN’s values and ethical standards;
- Promotes the vision, mission, and strategic goals of UNDP;
- Displays cultural, gender, religion, race, nationality and age sensitivity and adaptability;
- Treats all people fairly without favoritism;
- Ability to work with a multi-cultural and diverse team.
- Demonstrated experience in technical issues related to development and enforcement of grid code and similar regulatory work;
- Demonstrated experience with Power Pools and Electricity Regulatory issues;
- Demonstrated strong coordination and facilitation skills;
- Excellent knowledge of International Electrical standards and norms.
Required Skills and Experience
- Minimum MSc degree in Power Engineering (Electrical /Mechanical or related field).
- Minimum 15 years field experience in Renewable Energy systems and which of 5 years in the development of Feed-in-Tariff;
- Knowledge of International Electrical standards and Energy pricing and Tariffs;
- Knowledge of technical requirement for the integration of renewable energy power generation into low stability utility grid;
- Experience with Regulatory Authorities and utility interconnection is advantage;
- Work experience in countries with similar conditions, especially in the African context, is an advantage.