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International Consultant for development of finance analysis to support SDGs implementation in Tajikistan
|Location :||home based, with one mission to Dushanbe, Tajikistan|
|Application Deadline :||07-Dec-17 (Midnight New York, USA)|
|Additional Category :||Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction|
|Type of Contract :||Individual Contract|
|Post Level :||International Consultant|
|Languages Required :||English|
|Duration of Initial Contract :||30 days (15 w/d of mission to Dushanbe, Tajikistan)|
|Expected Duration of Assignment :||December 2016 –February 2017|
Tajikistan is a landlocked, lower middle income developed country (WB, 2015). Tajikistan population is 8.481 million, of which 49.35 percent are women. 35 percent of citizens are aged 0-14, which makes its population one of the youngest in Central Asia. Tajikistan has one of the lowest nominal GNI per capita among Former Soviet Union countries, under $1,300 and scored 129th in the Human Development Index (0.624, 2015 results). The country scored 69th in the Gender Inequality Index, and 93rd in the Global Gender Gap Index in 2015.
The level of general poverty in Tajikistan fell from 45 percent in 2010 to 30,5 percent in 2016. The analysis of monetary poverty shows that deprivations have been higher for the population in the bottom 40 percent of the consumption distribution than for those in the top 60 percent. 10 percent of female-headed households comprise bottom 40 percent poor households. Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) suggests that some 5.4 percent of the population at national level are multidimensionally poor, while vulnerability to multidimensional poverty reaches over 20 percent (7.6 and 25 percent in urban and rural areas respectively). The analysis of non-monetary poverty shows that the key dimensions associated with non-monetary poverty in Tajikistan are deprivations in ‘education’, poor access to ‘sewerage’, and poor ‘heating’. In terms of infrastructure development, Tajikistan has achieved one of its strategic objectives by connecting three disconnected parts of the country thereby unifying the country and ensuring regular movement of the residents from various parts of the country.
Tajikistan is particularly vulnerable to both economic and environmental shocks. It is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, including extreme weather events originated from changing climate as well as seismic activity. These compounded natural and economic crises have, and negatively affected women’s economic activity and made women and girls ever more vulnerable.
Given the high reliance on remittances, it is also susceptible to economic downturns in the Russian Federation. Due to the Russian ruble’s devaluation, remittances in 2016 were reduced in dollar equivalent almost three times (in comparison with the relevant period of 2015) and the forecast for migrants’ incomes demonstrates a further decrease of remittance flows. Reliance on food imports and external market variations, vulnerability to natural disasters, limited arable land, and a landlocked geographic location contribute to making Tajikistan vulnerable to external factors. Some of these risks could potentially derail the notable improvements in the wellbeing of the population seen over the past two decades.
Sustainable Development Goals and Tajikistan
2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development was unanimously approved by the UN members states in the 70th UN General Assembly on September 2015. The new Agenda, with its 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 accompanying targets, came into effect in January 2016. Based on the lessons learned and evidence from achieving the MDGs, the United Nations System will help national counterparts transit to the SDGs, and adopt an inclusive and comprehensive approach to sustainable development.
Tajikistan is well positioned to achieve strong progress on the SDGs by building on its development gains in the past two decades (MDG accomplishments) and demonstrating strong commitment to further reforms. Therefore in 2016, Government of Tajikistan has approved the National Development Strategy 2016-2030 and its Mid-term Development Programme for 2016-2020, that are aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals. Government defined major priorities in NDS to foster economic and social development that includes:
In addition, the Government prioritizes social development as a main factor to strengthen a human capital and RIA conducted in 2016 by MAPS mission showed clear linkages of national priorities reflected in strategies and sectorial programmes with the SDG targets and indicators.
Taking into the consideration a fact that 78% of NDS and sectorial programme priorities are linked with SDGs, its full implementation will contribute to SDGs and will require stable flow of financial resources.
Addressing the SDGs in Tajikistan means overcoming bottlenecks. Tajikistan’s geographical, historical, cultural, social and economic problems provide ample room for regional disparities and consequently inequalities and exclusion at the different scales and levels. Obsolete infrastructure, limited funding and in many cases lack of qualified human resources impedes the provision of quality basic services. This further result in dissatisfaction of the population with the quality of services and instabilities. Experience shows that in such situations women, persons with disabilities and at-risk youth are among the most disadvantaged. However, while there is a strong commitment to the SDGs in Tajikistan, further alignment, M&E, statistical advocacy, financial allocations and capacity building is needed.
The 2030 Agenda will require the mobilization of unprecedented investments which will not be met by Government and development financing alone; i.e. important to SDG achievement: 1) Government investment; 2) the role of development partners (ODA); 3) applying tools to reform public expenditure for sustainable development. While the private sector will need to play a role, given the current bottlenecks, it remains difficult to assess how they will contribute to the achievement of SDGs in Tajikistan – more work may be needed in this area as well as in terms of enabling business environment for private sector development.
Remittances play a critical role in feeding up of national economy with necessary resources. Currently, remittances act as a significant buffer to poverty for a large section of the population, and most remittance expenditure is used for consumption of food and necessities, house renovations and celebrations. Under these circumstances remittances assist in reducing income poverty but with minimal contribution to human development. While some efforts show that remittances can be used for development related initiatives, it remains likely remittances will continue to be an important part of many households’ incomes.
The Government investment strategy provides a starting point for assessing financing and related SDG priorities. Commensurate progress would be expected in these goals and, less likely, financing coming from Government for social sectors. Funding for the social sectors is mostly provided through donor support and Official Development Assistance (ODA), which will have significant impact on progress in the social sectors and related goals. The amount of investment to SDGs coming through the UNDAF (United Nations Development Assistance Framework for Tajikistan 2016-2020) can also be considered as important contributions for SDG achievement as UNDAF is also very well aligned with SDGs and National Development Strategy of Tajikistan.
In 2017 Government of Tajikistan presented its Voluntary National Review report and committed to prepare the first National SDG report that will serve as a baseline to track further progress. One of the most important points concluded in VNR relates to resource provision and effective use of funds and it provides:
“It is impossible to imagine achieving SDGs outcomes without resource provision. Tajikistan has identified main sources for the implementation of NDS-2030 and SDGs. However, it will be difficult to achieve results and create conducive atmosphere for sustainable development without development partners. SDGs funding is the most important part; along with this, Tajikistan, considering implementation of previous strategies, will focus on the effective use of funds for the most problematic fields”.
Duties and Responsibilities
Goals and objectives:
Currently Government of Tajikistan with support of UN has started elaboration of the first National SDG report (NSDGR) that will serve as a baseline to track the progress for the later periods. As part of this process UN is willing to support the Government of Tajikistan to conduct a quick analysis of the current state/situation in the sphere of financing for SDGs, to elaborate a methodology for implementation of comprehensive development finance assessment for SDGs implementation in Tajikistan and propose best practices for diversification of financial flows. The scope of the assignment includes the following components:
Recommend options for learning and knowledge sharing via South-South and triangular cooperation solutions with the countries having relevant experience in the sphere of development finance and implementation of innovative financing schemes for development.
Duties and responsibilities:
For detailed information, please refer to annex 2- Terms of Reference of the below link.
Required Skills and Experience
Please follow the link to the Individual Consultant Procurement Notice:
UNDP is committed to achieving workforce diversity in terms of gender, nationality and culture. Individuals from minority groups, indigenous groups and persons with disabilities are equally encouraged to apply. All applications will be treated with the strictest confidence
UNDP is committed to achieving workforce diversity in terms of gender, nationality and culture. Individuals from minority groups, indigenous groups and persons with disabilities are equally encouraged to apply. All applications will be treated with the strictest confidence.