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National Consultant - Economics of Land Degradation (ELD) Case Study for Somalia
|Location :||Home-based, with travel to different locations in Somalia, SOMALIA|
|Application Deadline :||19-Feb-19 (Midnight New York, USA)|
|Type of Contract :||Individual Contract|
|Post Level :||National Consultant|
|Languages Required :||English|
|Starting Date :|
(date when the selected candidate is expected to start)
|Duration of Initial Contract :||10.5 months|
|Expected Duration of Assignment :||10.5 months|
ELD Initiative strengthens the national ability to assess the costs of land degradation and the economic benefits of investments in sustainable land management / Evergreen Agriculture (objective) and include this information into decision-making processes. Targeting key institutions from the national research and policy sector, the activities focus on the joint development of economic assessments of selected land degradation phenomena and land use options. Training on-the-job is provided for both policy-makers and researchers, for young professionals/post-docs as potential future leaders and decision-makers, including tutoring by international experts, joint development of economic monitoring and decision-making tools and exposition to the international research community through learning events. The macroeconomic benefits of sustainable land use methods will be widely communicated to stakeholders and decision-makers of relevant sectors, targeting different levels of governance as well as the wider public and using stakeholder-specific communication materials. Thereby, a multi-sectoral policy dialogue shall be inspired.
Duties and Responsibilities
A. Scope of Work
The general objective of the assignment is to support the national trainees/researchers in undertaking their studies on the costs of land degradation and economic viability of alternative land management approaches, focusing on rangeland degradation. This was decided during the project kick-off workshop by national stakeholders. Rangelands are of great economic importance to Somalia as they support the livestock sector which contributes 30% of the total gross domestic product (GDP) and more than 50% of foreign exchange earnings. Degradation of rangelands due to overgrazing and deforestation coupled with recurrent flash floods and droughts have undermined the carrying capacity of important rangelands in meeting the feeding requirements of livestock populations. The studies will take place in the context of the above-named project, building on the already field-tested ELD methodology.
Contribution to national LDN process
The studies shall contribute to the national SDG-visions of achieving a land degradation neutral (LDN) state. The ELD studies shall provide more detailed information on what kind of sustainable land management practices could be implemented in the rangelands and indicate the related costs and benefits of the practices, which contribute positively to achieve SDG 15.3. They will ultimately add relevant information on the economic returns from reaching the LDN vision in Somalia (as expressed in the National Action Program (NAP) to Combat Desertification) to be embraced.
Throughout the studies, emphasis shall be put on strengthening the capacities of national researchers/trainees in undertaking economic assessments. Relevant institutions in Somalia were identified (research organisations, universities, Governmental institutions) who then nominated researchers/ “trainees”for the process. The selected researchers/ “trainees” have under undergone a start-up training. The consultant shall support the national researchers/ “trainees” from the study onset, so that they practise their knowledge developed during the training on how to frame an ELD study and how to value ecosystem services specific to their cases. The researchers/ “trainees” through their institutions shall contribute data, calculations and text inputs for the studies and the study report. The national consultant will provide technical backstopping and support to the trainees to deliver their studies.
The studies will be based on the methodological framework adopted by the ELD Initiative to guide users through the process of establishing scientifically sound cost-benefit analyses. With the 6+1 step approach as outlined in the user guide (ELD (2015), comparability will be ensured with other ELD studies undertaken in other countries as part of the wider project. Adaptations may be made to the 6+1 methodology in the context of this study in Somalia to reflect potential data and time constraints due to unavailable information. This is likely to mean that provisioning Eco-system Services (ESS) will be emphasised.
Through the project kick-off workshop which was held in Mogadishu on the 6th May 2018 the national stakeholders have delimited the strategic focus of the study to be on rangeland degradation in Somalia. During the training and study kick-off workshop the study topic was further finetuned and it was decided that the Somalia case study should have three studies with different geographical focus. The first focusing on deforestation/tree cutting for charcoal production with national focus, the second on the Cost benefit analysis of grazing management practices in Puntland and the third on Effect of private enclosures on land degradation in Somaliland.
2. Geographical characteristics
The study will cover rangelands across Somalia, however specific geographic sites and ecological boundaries for sample data collection for the study have been identified together with the national partners during the training and study kick-off workshops. The case study on deforestation/tree cutting for charcoal production will have a national coverage, the case study in Puntland will be in select villages dharoor and Nugaal valleys and Balligubadle, faraweyne and Alaybaday of Maroodijeex region for the Somaliland case study. Additionally, the spatial distribution and ecological characteristics of rangeland types will be analysed through a Geographical Information System (GIS) as far as available and appropriate.
3. Types of Ecosystems Services (ESS) provided
For Rangeland degradation, the relevant ESS (provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services) have been identified, with guidance of the study leaders, during the training workshop and captured in the draft concept notes prepared by the trainees in each of the study locations.
4. Roles of ESS and economic valuation
This step identifies the role of the assessed ESS in the livelihoods of communities living in rangelands and the role for wider society. It requires estimating the total economic value of these services to estimate the benefits of action or the cost of inaction, taking relevant societal scales into consideration. Additional effects on employment, conflict mitigation, biodiversity, adapting climate change impacts or wider economic benefits generated through sustainable land management practices may be considered as well, depending on the focus identified during the training and in the studies’ concept notes.
5. Land degradation patterns and pressures
This step involves the identification of rangeland degradation patterns and drivers and pressures on land resources. It includes the assessment of factors causing rangeland degradation. Furthermore, it answers the question about the drivers of adoption of sustainable land management (including determining the role of property rights and legal systems). This is also covered in the concept notes developed following the training.
6. Cost-benefit analysis and decision-making
This step involves a cost-benefit analysis to compare the costs of adopting a sustainable land management practice against the benefits derived from it. The economic benefits and costs are calculated under alternative scenarios, an `action` scenario to that of a `business-as-usual` scenario. The Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis should be used so as to compare different land use options.
SLM practices suitable for the study regions to form the action scenarios have been identified in the concept notes developed by the trainees. The linkages between land management practices, and the ecosystem services of focus in the rangelands should be established. Multiple time horizons will be taken into account to demonstrate impacts of inaction and long-term impacts of investments in sustainable land management and to ensure linkages to relevant policy time frames. The trainees have received training on this but it will be important for the consultant to provide support in assisting them with the CBA calculations. Appropriate discount rates shall also be applied.
The final step in the ELD approach is the actual implementation of the most economically desirable options by private actors and public decision-makers. The consultant shall support the study leaders in a dialogue involving multiple stakeholders which will be undertaken by the study leaders to facilitate steps to adapting the legal, policy, institutional and economic contexts at multiple scales and levels. It requires relevant and suitable impact pathways to be identified, to promote and facilitate actions that can be scaled-up. A link to the Sustainable Development Goal 15.3 on Land Degradation Neutrality and 15.9 (but not limited to these) should be established during engagement with decision-makers and implementers on the ground, too.
The national consultant is expected to closely work with the study leaders to deliver the following results of the study using the above-described methodology (adapted as needed in discussions with the study leaders) and including the described capacity-building elements.
B. Expected Outputs and Deliverables
The deliverables will be forwarded by the study leaders after their review.
Management and Leadership
Fluent in spoken and written English and Somali languages.
Required Skills and Experience
Qualifications of the Successful Individual Contractor
Should have relevant experience in conducting economic, socio-economic and environmental studies. preference will be given to candidates with experience in conducting Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) and studies on the Economics of Land Degradation (ELD) and the valuation of ecosystem services and be familiar with the ELD methodology.
A minimum of a Master’s degree in relevant discipline(s) such as environmental economics, geography, agricultural economics or similar area of expertise.
Experience and Skills:
Scope of Price Proposal and Schedule of Payments
Recommended Presentation of Offer
Interested Offerors are required to apply via the UNDP jobsite system at https://jobs.undp.org on or before 19 February 2019. The application must include the following documents in ONE SINGLE PDF DOCUMENT:
Any request for clarification/additional information on this consultancy shall be communicated to UNDP in writing via email at firstname.lastname@example.org
Criteria for Selection of the Best Offer
Applicants will be evaluated based on the combined scoring method using the 70%-30% distribution whereby the technical proposal will be weighted at a maximum of 70% and combined with a price offer which will be weighted at 30%.
A two-stage procedure will be used to evaluate offers whereby the technical evaluation will be completed prior to price comparison.
Technical Qualification Evaluation Criteria: (70% of total evaluation; Maximum 70 points)
Only proposals obtaining a minimum of 49 points (70% of the total technical points) shall be considered for price comparision.
Financial Evaluation Criteria: (30% of total evaluation; Maximum 30 points)
The maximum number of points assigned to the financial proposal is allocated to the lowest price proposal. All other proposals receive points in inverse proportion. The following formula will be used to evaluate financial proposal:
p = y (µ/z), where
p = points for the financial proposal being evaluated
y = maximum number of points for the financial proposal
µ = price of the lowest priced proposal
z = price of the proposal being evaluated
The final score will be the sum of the two scores obtained for the technical and financial criteria.
The award of the contract shall be made to the proposer whose offer has been evaluated and determined as:
Annexes to the TOR
Due to the large number of applications we receive, only short-listed applicants shall be notified of the outcome.
UNDP is committed to achieving workforce diversity in terms of gender, nationality and culture. Individuals from minority groups, indigenous groups and persons with disabilities are equally encouraged to apply. All applications will be treated with the strictest confidence.
UNDP does not tolerate sexual exploitation and abuse, any kind of harassment, including sexual harassment, and discrimination. All selected candidates will, therefore, undergo rigorous reference and background checks.