The United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) 2016 – 2020 was developed through an inclusive and participatory process led by the Government of Maldives and the United Nations in Maldives in consultation with civil society and development partners. The UNDAF embodies the following four strategic focus or outcome areas to respond to national needs and make use of the United Nations’ comparative advantages.
- Youth and Children
- Environment and Climate Change
These outcome areas serve as a mutual accountability framework among the Government, other partners and the United Nations. While eleven UN entities are signatory to the UNDAF, ten UN agencies participated in the operationalization of the UNDAF through rolling biennial Joint Work Plans. This process was led by four co-chairs each from the UN and Government lead agencies in the UNDAF outcome areas with advice from the UNDAF Joint Steering Committee, co-chaired by Foreign Secretary of the Government and the UN Resident Coordinator with strategic support from UN Country Team (UNCT) and technical support from a UN Technical Taskforce (UNTT). The stakeholders have completed the final evaluation of the UNDAF 2016-2020 in July 2019.
Following recent reforms repositioning the UN development system, Maldives UN Sustainable Development Cooperation Framework (UNCF) is the most important UN planning and implementation instrument in support of 2030 Agenda in the country and will be prepared and implemented in full consultation with national Government. The UNCF will outline the UN’s collective response to national SDG priorities agreed with national Government for the period of 2021-2025. In this vein, it will be first and foremost a partnership with national government, a compact for UN country teams and a commitment to national stakeholders including development partners, international financial institutions, civil society, trade unions, employers and those left behind. The new Maldives UNCF will be expected to be a vehicle for supporting: economic transformation; peaceful societies through sustainable development strategies specific to Maldives’s country contexts; and leveraging of all sources of sustainable financing UNCF.
As per the UNCF Guidelines from the UN Sustainable Development Group (UNSDG), the UN Common Country Analysis (CCA) is the UN system’s independent, impartial and collective assessment (i.e., a description of a country situation) and analysis (i.e., a description of causes and their implications) of a country’s situation for its internal use in developing the UNCF. Multi-disciplinary in nature, the CCA will examine progress, gaps, opportunities and bottlenecks vis-à-vis a country’s commitment to achieving the 2030 Agenda, UN norms and standards, and the principles of the UN Charter, as reflected in the UNCF Guiding Principles. The CCA will seek to engender integrated, cross-pillar systems thinking, summarizing the interlinkages and integrated nature of the SDGs; multidimensional factors spanning the development, humanitarian, peacebuilding and human rights spectrum; relevant regional, sub-regional and cross-border dynamics; the country’s legal, institutional, policy and financial landscape.
The CCA is no longer a one-off event, but a core analytical function carried out by the UNCT and the CCA is a flagship product of Maldives’s UNCT and a core analytical function of the UN at country, regional and global levels. This will enable the UNCT to be responsive to emerging needs and changing conditions in a country and provide a basis for making course corrections in programme implementation.
Therefore, under the guidance of the UN Resident Coordinator, the UNCT in Maldives seeks to hire the services of a team (one international and one national consultant) to facilitate the preparation of a high-quality, rights-based and evidence-based CCA as the foundation for the new UN Cooperation Framework 2021-2025.
Purpose and specific objectives: Duties and Responsibilities
Purpose: This consultancy is aimed to support the UNCT in Maldives to develop a high quality and evidence-based CCA for Maldives which examines the progress, gaps, opportunities and bottlenecks vis-a-vis the Maldives’s commitment to the achievement of the 2030 Agenda, human rights and UN norms and standards and the principles of the UN Charter. The CCA must be based on the UNCF Guidelines (June 2019) and the companion pieces of the UNCF Guidelines including the framework guidance on UN Common Country Analysis (July 2019). Hence, the main elements expected of the CCA are:
- Taking stock of Maldives’s progress towards fulfilment of the 2030 Agenda;
- Analysis of opportunities and constraints for Maldives in achieving SDG and targets with emphasis on those left behind and structural transformation
- Examining the Governance Structures, Institutions, Existing Capacities and Capacity Gaps in the country
- Identification of emerging challenges, critical gaps and potential partnerships to support implementation of UNSDG commitments for Maldives.
- To analyze existing data and data gaps for national SDG indicators comparing official data with international sources and where possible use innovative diagnostic tools.
- This analysis should be based on the Voluntary National Review, , that Maldives presented in the past, the country-specific assessments/findings and recommendations of UN principal organs, and the UNSDG endorsed Mainstreaming, Acceleraion and Policy Support (MAPS) mission findings and recommendations in Maldives.
- To describe and analyze the key challenges and opportunities in relation to achieving national priorities in relation to Agenda 2030, international human rights obligations and agreed international norms and standards and regional commitments.
- To identify multidimensional risks that could impact the development trajectory of the country, covering a full spectrum of development, humanitarian, peacebuilding and human rights issues.
- To identify key development stakeholders and describe their capacities and potential contributions to national SDG priorities. In this context, outline the UN’s collective comparative advantage in the Maldives versus these stakeholders.
- To identify and analyze the relevant regional, sub-regional and cross-border dynamics and their impact on achieving the 2030 Agenda in the context of the Maldives.
- This may include inter alia trends and risks related to economics and trade, employment and decent work, basic social services incl. education, health & nutrition, social protection and protection of vulnerable population groups, climate change and natural disasters, environmental degradation and ecosystem service, geo-political dynamics, peace and security, migration patterns, health emergencies and animal, food or sanitary emergencies, limitations/opportunities for private sector development. This will help identify opportunities for cross-border dialogue and collaboration between countries.
- To identify and describe population groups left behind or at risk of being left behind in the country, assessing the evidence of who is left behind and to what degree and the underlying intersection of drivers of risks and vulnerabilities, sources of deprivation, discrimination, , and needs, and analysis of inequalities, including gender inequality, taking into account political, social, cultural, geography, governance, conflict, disasters, climate change, the environment or the economy related issues.
- Assess the financing landscape for sustainable development at the country level, highlighting the existing and potential opportunities for leveraging financing for sustainable development.
Guided by the national vision, national development plan, national strategic plan, national budgets as well as national SDG indicator framework and regional commitments, the consultant will amongst others examine the following areas and identify progress, challenges, opportunities and gaps.
The assessment and the analysis are to focus on the following:
- Analysis of 2030 agenda
- Analysis of LNOB
- Risks analysis
- Capacity and gap analysis
The analysis will also take into account the three dimensions in the agenda 2030, including social, economic, and environmental risks.
Examine with an inter-disciplinary approach and:
- Shed light on the persistence of intractable and complex development challenges, and why certain groups of people and certain places are left behind or are at risk of being left behind.
- Provide an understanding of the different elements that are currently impacting or that risk impacting the development trajectory of Maldives, hindering national efforts to achieve the SDGs and their targets;
- Detail analysis of the country’s efforts to reduce the patterns of inequality, exclusion and discrimination affecting those being left behind, and; country efforts to meet the country’s obligations under international human rights law and ratified conventions with relevant regional, sub-regional and cross-border dynamics.
Identify progress, challenges, opportunities and gaps related to:
- Examine the political economic trajectory of the country from the past to the present, and the vision for its future;
- Analysis of the Maldives economy by examining the dominating and future production and employment sectors including agricultural, industrial, service, trade and technology policies over time with an understanding of the economy in relation to its immediate neighbors and the global economy;
- Analysis of the incentives, relationships, distribution and contestation of power and resources among the different groups and individuals and between the center and the periphery considering the Maldivian geographical reality;
- Inclusiveness of economic growth, particularly the relationship between economic growth, employment creation and income, population access to quality public service delivery, analysis of resource allocation for public services and expenditure, distribution and contestation of power, labor market polices and unemployment (across age and gender),),), contribution of socioeconomic reforms to sustainable and decent job creation and reduction of gender and age gaps;
- Evidence- and rights-based policy making;
- Private sector development with three-pronged focus: (i) on Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs), (ii) Investment Promotion (Foreign Direct Investment) with disaggregated analysis on and the activity of women-owned firms, (iii) Ability of young people, women and people with disabilities to start their own business and identify potential barriers and bottlenecks;
- Domestic, regional and international trade including volume, value and contribution to employment;
- Analysis of equality of opportunity to live the life as every individual deems important within the Maldives society;
- Industrial development in Maldives with a view to increase the contribution of the sector to the economy and employment generation with disaggregated analysis;
- Include the impact of climate change and disasters, migration, insecurity, new technologies, and urbanization in terms of what these mega-trends mean for efforts by Maldives to transform its economy;
- Assessment of the economic transformation as regards how the intended changes to the structure of the economy will impact those being left behind or at risk of being left behind, including: the poor, women, workers, youth, minorities, migrants, internally displaced persons, stateless persons, older persons, persons with disabilities, etc.;
- Analysis of economic transformation on how it touches on important issues of political representation, civic engagement, employment patterns and labour relations and local and national development.
Monetary and Fiscal Policy
Drawing on data from World Bank, International Monetary Fund and other regional/and or international financial institutions:
- Analyze how the Maldives generates revenues through productive activities and manages its finances creates the conditions for public and private, domestic and foreign investment vital to its future;
- Examine the monetary and fiscal policies of Maldives with reflection on the corruption, rule of law and the impacts on investments;
- Assess the financial sector reforms in the country, the depth of the domestic capital markets, the health of the financial services industry, and a review of factors that may hamper economic and financial growth;
- Analysis of monetary policy to ascertain whether the country is applying lending practices that discriminate against women and/or minorities, indigenous peoples, young people, internally displaced persons, stateless persons, etc. in ways that deepen historical inequalities;
- Analysis of fiscal policy should examine sources of revenue leakages particularly Illicit Financial Flows (IFFs) and the flow of value across borders that is illicit in its source (e.g. corruption, smuggling, tax evasion), its transfer (e.g. violating international regulations), or its use (e.g. terrorist financing); );
- Identify the greatest opportunities to re-orient all sources of financing for SDGs in the country;
- Identify the financial instruments and key factors to develop strong, stable, competitive and inclusive financial system that provides access to financial services for the entire population and contributes to growth by efficiently channeling domestic and foreign savings toward productive investments;
- Assess development finance in a changing local and global context including the role of private sector in financing development;
- Analysis of the level, quality, and depth of fiscal and political decentralization in the Maldives, current pledges from the government, and opportunities for partnerships between the UN and the Government of Maldives on equity- and rights-based decentralization policies.
Governance and Institutional Structures including Rule of Law
Assess the status, quality, progress, challenges, opportunities and gaps related to the following:
- Governance structures, starting from the State as the main duty-bearer for rights, mapping the trajectory from the past to the present and the projections into the future;
- Legal frameworks relevant to human rights promotion and protection and in line with international standards;
- Vertical structure and decentralization of public administration, and the authority vested in local governments to administer public services and collect revenue and inclusiveness of vulnerable groups to be part of decision-making;
- Security, corruption, rule of law and access to justice for assessing the effectiveness of public administration and the capacity of the State to respect, protect and fulfil human rights;
- State/society relations, including the legal and de facto status of civil society organizations, minority, youth and women’s groups, community organizations, volunteer groups, professional associations, organized labour, cooperatives, etc., including the means available for the participation of marginalized groups in decision-making processes;
- Facilitation of economic activities by an effective legal system and rule-of-law-based governance structure in which property and contract rights of all citizens, particularly of women, are reliably respected and enforced and addressing social inequalities;
- Analysis of the adequacy of the labour administration systems and institutions in line with International Labour Standards and norms, with a view to establishing sound labour market governance
- Judiciary sector reform including conformity with international and regional human rights standards, predictability, transparency, non-discrimination and impartiality of laws affecting the population, and their application by the judiciary, particularly with focus on children and juvenile offenders, migrants, and women as some of the most vulnerable groups;
- Implementation of national programmes on human rights devised in accordance with international human rights commitments including recommendations received by UN human rights mechanisms;
- Accountability systems for the use of funds and development results including the effective and independent functioning of oversight institutions (electorate and by the legislature and judiciary);
- National budget process that prioritizes reaching the furthest behind and utilizes tools such as Gender Responsive Budgeting.
- Key policy and programmatic areas for promotion of good governance, human rights and deepening democratic culture;
- The decentralization process and the local government system and to what extent this is responsible to local needs, inclusive in terms of gender and age contributions, and the potential increase of their role in SDG implementation;
- Current ability of the Maldives government, including law enforcement Agencies, to prevent and respond to the spread of extremist ideologies, the informal networks arising to recruit vulnerable people including young people, and ways this threat is being addressed;
- The adequacy and quality of the government’s drug and crime prevention programmes, particularly with focus on children and young people through the national education system.
Human capital development
With a gender perspective, analyze the progress, challenges, opportunities and gaps related to:
- Analysis of national policies and service delivery that affect universal access to health care and quality of health services, including reproductive health, and prevention and treatment of tuberculosis and malaria, and other communicable and non-communicable diseases, geriatrics as well as mental health and environmental health risk factors;
- Examine access, efficiency, effectiveness, inclusiveness and gender sensitivity of services pertaining to education, including comprehensive sexuality education (CSE), Early Childhood Development (ECD) and adult literacy programs;
- Effectiveness of skills development and technical vocational and higher education services with a view to promote comprehensive systems development needed for the achievement of Vision 2030 or Agenda 2030 and address the unemployment levels in particular for the young people and women;
- Assess the situation of malnutrition in the Maldives, its root causes, and whether health system capacities to adequately address the issue in a gender sensitive manner;
- Promoting access to and quality of water and sanitation services and if gender dimension is properly addressed;
- The adequacy and effectiveness of the national social protection system, including the capacity of the national system to address the challenges facing the most vulnerable, including children and young people affected by violence, abuse and neglect, availability of adequate services for women and girls (especially those affected by violence incl. sexual violence), men and boys, with a view to identify areas for more effective planning and service delivery;
- Efficiency and effectiveness of multi-sectoral essential more effective planning and service package for victims and survivors of gender-based violence;
- Social inequality levels and geographic disparities across the territory, identify key policy and programmatic priority areas to address inequality, prevent violent extremism and promote social cohesion among various groups in society.
Environment, climate change, resilience, and natural resources management:
- Critically assess the profile and trends of disaster risk in Maldives with specific focus on the impact of climate change on the economy and health outcomes of its population including migrants, as well as the adequacy of policies and legal frameworks of the country to adapt and mitigate climate change, as well as critically review the disaster risk reduction approach of the country to the changing disaster risk circumstances;
- A country risk analysis, looking at the government’s and its support structures’ capacity to adequately prepare and respond to the negative impact of climate change and natural disasters, particularly with regards to the most vulnerable groups: women, children, people with disabilities;
- Examine the effectiveness of environmental policies to foster the sustainable use and management of natural resources (i.e. water, waste, conservation management, coastal zones management, and natural resources management);
- Examine the issues related to energy efficiency and the main challenges and opportunities to the country. (Use some indicators like CO2 emissions so far and others);
- Examine the impact of urbanization on the environment and sustainability of growth in the country and how these might impact various groups in society in different ways.
The consultancy team will develop a technically sound methodology in accordance with human rights approach to data, international data protection standards and the UN Principles on Personal Data Protection and Privacy. The methodology will amongst others:
- Draw and synthesize secondary and primary data and add to existing data, statistics, analyses, reviews, research, studies and resources from within and outside the UN system. These include national and sector-specific development visions and strategies, national budget allocations, and development financing from domestic and international, private and public sources, regional and global reports;
- Capture data on regional and cross-border issues which impact on the country’s development trajectory;
- Ensure a highly participatory CCA process involving a wide range of national stakeholders – government, development partners, international financial institutions, private sector, civil society, international NGOs, trade unions, youth, women, children, people with disabilities, and other vulnerable groups of persons at risk of or already left behind;
- Employ innovative approaches to inclusive and participatory data collection and analytical processes that also takes advantage of the high internet and mobile coverage and usage in the country;
- The CCA design and tools will facilitate identification of those left behind or at risk of being left behind across all the themes examined;
- The evidence and data, where it is possible, needs to be disaggregated not only by income, gender, geography and age, but also other grounds of discrimination prohibited under international law. Social, cultural, economic, political, legislative and other systemic drivers of exclusion should be examined and described.
- The Consultancy Team will work under the overall guidance of UN Resident Coordinator, the UNCT, RDCO and the PSG through the UNCF Convening Agency (UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia – UNICEF ROSA) and UNCF Technical Team (UNTT), the latter chaired by the Head of UN Resident Coordinator’s Office (UNRCO).
- The Consultancy Team will be supervised by the chair of the UNTT, Head of UNRCO, under the overall guidance of the UN Resident Coordinator.
- The Consultant Team will work on a daily basis with the RCO and the UNTT who will oversee and guide their work.
- Responsibilities of the UNCT and UNTT:
Under the leadership of UN Resident Coordinator, the UNCT and UNTT will be is responsible for the successful execution of the CCA process by managing and quality assuring the work and deliverables of international consultant. In particular, they will:
- Guide the consultant in preparing the CCA Inception report;
- Facilitate the review of the CCA Inception report, proposed data collection tools and CCA methodology;
- Provide the consultant with all available key Government, UN and other stakeholder documents pertinent for understanding the country situation. All UN Agencies will make available all necessary documents for review in the context of this exercise.
- Identify all the key stakeholders to be consulted during this study;
- Organize meetings and focus groups and arrange transportation for the consultant;
- Provide timely feedback on the evolving draft of the CCA so that it meets the desired quality;
- Prior to finalization of the CCA report, facilitate the necessary consensus building with key stakeholder and final approval by the UNCT;
- Through the UNRCO, draw upon the technical capacities, assets and expertise of UN global and regional levels (e.g. UNDAF Convening Agency, Peer Support Group, Regional Economic Commissions etc) for a high quality CCA right from design of the TOR to finalization of CCA.
- Responsibilities of the Consultancy Team
Under the overall guidance of the UNCT and UNTT, the Consultancy Team will lead in facilitating the CCA process and will be specifically responsible for the following:
- Lead the design and presentation of the Inception Report, detailed CCA methodology and tools including for data collection and analysis, review and reporting to fulfil the consultancy objectives;
- Conduct consultations with key stakeholders (Government, international development partners, civil society, private sector and municipalities) in very close consultation with the RCO;
- Design, conduct and facilitate a CCA retreat for the UN Country Team
- Lead in preparing a high quality analytical CCA report following the UN Sustainable Development Cooperation Framework Guidelines for UN Common Country Analysis;
- Prepare presentations to UNCT and national stakeholders as may be needed;
- Integrate into research design, analysis and report the UN Guiding/Programming Principles: i) Leave no one behind; (ii) Human rights-based approach; iii) gender equality and women’s empowerment; iv) resilience; v) accountability; and vi) sustainability;
- Preparation of a high quality, evidence based and analytical CCA report for Maldives;
- The international consultant is responsible to supervise and quality assure the work of the national consultant.
- The national consultant is responsible to provide the necessary technical and logistical support to the international consultant to ensure implementation of the agreed objectives and deliverables of the CCA.
Deliverable - 1 Desk Review
Desk review of all the available studies, reports, evaluations, surveys produced by the country, including the UNDAF 2016-2020 annual reviews and final evaluation, Annual One UN Results Reports and Final Evaluation Report and develop an Inception Report, that includes detailed CCA Work Plan for completing the assignment, tools and methodologies, as well as other data collection methods proposed for in-country visits and out-country (on-line surveys, BigData). Develop questionnaires and guidance for the national consultant’s visits to the stakeholders.
Location: Home Based
Duration: 5 working days (October 2019)
Payment schedule: 10%
Deliverable 2 - In-country mission
In-country mission and Focus Group discussions, including UN Resident Coordinator, UNCT, UNTT, UN Outcome Groups, Non-Resident UN Agencies, Government, Civil Society, Development Partners, and others, as identified by the UNCT and UNTT.
International Consultant will lead, design and conduct the UNCT CCA retreat and present the preliminary CCA report for validation by the UNCT and UNTT. During this retreat, the collective UN comparative advantage of UN in the Maldives in support of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development will be analyzed.
Duration: 10 working days (October 2019)
Payment schedule: 20%
Deliverable 3 - Draft CCA Report (see Annex 1)
This must include discussion of findings, conclusions and recommendations from desk review and primary data gathered. This must address all the objectives of the study.
Max. 30 pages (English), including Executive Summary (5 pages), the assessment of country context and the 2030 Agenda, including a consideration of existing data and data gaps and the enabling political, policy and legislative environment, the rights-based analysis of the drivers of inter-sectoral and development challenges, including the underlying and root causes of inequalities and discrimination, capacity gaps of rights holders and duty bearers, the UN comparative advantage and the UN and national capacity development assessment, the risk and opportunities, future scenarios and contingencies (risk-analysis disaggregated), identification of priorities areas of development intervention, of key issues and challenges and suggestions of areas of opportunity for the UN intervention.
Duration: 10 working days (October-November 2019)
Payment schedule: 30%
Deliverable 4 - Final CCA Report
Max. 30 pages (English) plus essential annexes and 2,500 words Executive Summary (submitted in hard and soft copy). To be assessed using UNSDG Quality Checklist for CCA developing.
Duration: 10 working days (December 2019-January 2020)
Payment schedule: 40% of total value of contract (upon approval of the CCA final report)
The award of the contract will be made to the consultant whose offer has been evaluated and determined as having received the highest combined score of the technical and financial scores.
- Technical Criteria weight: 70%
- Financial Criteria weight: 30%
Only candidates obtaining a minimum of 70 points out of 100 points at the technical evaluation will be considered for the financial evaluation.
- Criterion A: Relevant educational background (max 10 points)
- Criterion B: 5 years’ experience of conducting multi-disciplinary country/national level situational analysis related to 2030 Agenda or SDGs (max 30 points)
- Criterion C: 1 year of previous experience Maldives and South Asia (max 5 points)
- Criteria D: Previous experience of conducting UN Common Country Analysis (max 5 points)
- Criteria E: Substantial professional application of human rights, gender equality, environmental sustainability, result-based management and capacity development in research (max 20 points)
- Criteria F: Knowledge of English (max 10 points)
- Criteria G: Interview (20 max points)