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Mitigation and Carbon Tax Consultant
|Location :||Bangkok-based with possible mission travel|
|Application Deadline :||24-Feb-20 (Midnight New York, USA)|
|Additional Category :||Management|
|Type of Contract :||Individual Contract|
|Post Level :||International Consultant|
|Languages Required :||English|
|Starting Date :|
(date when the selected candidate is expected to start)
|Duration of Initial Contract :||25 February 2020 - 28 February 2021|
|Expected Duration of Assignment :||up to a maximum of 120 working days.|
Project Title: Strengthening the Governance of Climate Finance to Enhance Gender Equality
UNDP’s Bangkok Regional Hub (BRH) supports countries and UNDP Country Offices in the Asia-Pacific region on various development issues, including the regional programme on Strengthening the governance of climate change finance.
In Asia and the Pacific, UNDP is increasingly being requested to provide governance related services that support governments in articulating their response to climate change. These services include strengthening government’s institutional and administrative frameworks to be able to deliver integrated climate policy and programming within a range of sectors; strengthening government’s planning and budgeting processes to be able to account transparently for climate relate services and climate finance; strengthening parliament and civil society’s roles in holding governments to account for their response to climate change and supporting sector ministries and local governments in integrating climate related services into their programming. There is also an increasing urgency to ensure that the needs, priorities, and interests of all people, including women, the poor, youth, and minorities and others who are particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts are taken into account and that these people participate in the governance of a climate change response: in all stages of policy formulation, programme implementation and processes of accountability that determine a response to climate change.
To respond to the growing demands, UNDP Bangkok Regional Hub (BRH) has established a multi-disciplinary team to deliver services which can support governments to develop comprehensive approaches to govern the challenge of climate change in ways that support their overall development. Following the endorsement of SDGs and the outcome of UNFCCC CoP21 in Paris in 2015 and 2016 respectively, the global and Asia-Pacific region is moving towards inclusive participation from all stakeholders within the new global development goals. Building on the successes of the initial 3-year regional project titled “Strengthening the Governance of Climate Finance to benefit the poor and vulnerable”, a second phase of the programme has now been initiated titled ‘Strengthening the Governance of Climate Finance to Enhance Gender Equality’. The main objective of the 5-year second phase of the programme, which ends in June 2022, is to ensure that more budget resources are allocated to address climate change and also promote gender equality in Asia Pacific. Phase 2 aims to strengthen the national and local planning and budgeting processes to enable public investments to deliver sustainable development goals in an integrated manner, focusing on enhancing gender equality whilst tackling climate change. The regional project operates in seven countries – Bangladesh, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Thailand and three countries in the Pacific.
Moving forward a Climate Finance Network will be established which will support select countries across Asia Pacific in fostering knowledge management across the region and provide support to the countries in implementation of climate finance reforms around six workstreams. One of the six workstream is tax and innovative finance. The programme implementation will also mean an expansion in number of countries that are to be supported.
The consultant will render support to the programme on mitigation and taxation component. The consultant will be expected to provide effective technical assistance to the country offices in implementation of the programme, this will require close engagement with the country offices including travel. The consultant will also share experiences with other teams at the Bangkok Regional Hub building on shared best practice and in strengthening the mitigation component in the project.
The consultant will be part of a multidisciplinary Governance of Climate Change Finance team for Asia-Pacific reporting to the Governance and Public Finance Specialist who in turn reports to SDG Finance Advisor in the Bangkok Regional Hub.
Context Mitigation Component of Regional Project
The programme, as part of its support to Ministries of Finance to integrate climate change into public financial management, seeks to enhance the focus on mitigation working at the national level and also through line ministries that can contribute the most to climate mitigation.
There is emerging interest in carbon pricing in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific as a measure to enhance mitigation actions and domestic resource mobilisation and the programme aims to respond by exploring the range of carbon pricing mechanisms which can be instrumental in reducing carbon emissions. Carbon pricing mechanisms include carbon taxs, emissions trading schemes, carbon offset mechanisms, results-based climate finance and internal carbon prices set by state owned or private organizations.
The Programme will support country governments in assessing the feasibility of introducing various carbon pricing mechanisms with an initial emphasis on carbon tax schemes that are gender and socially responsive.
While there have been a few academic studies at the regional level e.g the ‘The Economy-wide Impact of a Uniform Carbon Tax in ASEAN’ Ditya A. Nurdianto and Budy P. Resosudarmo, actual country based studies that have been done under the auspices of respective Ministries of Finance have been limited, also these studies do not delve deep into the redistributive angle and how carbon tax will fit within the wider fiscal policy context.
UNDP will partner with research entities/ think tanks for collaborative research with governments to provide policy options for carbon tax. It is important that the policy choice for a carbon pricing including carbon tax is driven by country requirements, the emission reduction targets, the overall climate and fiscal framework of the country and finally the potential impact of the policy on women, men, people with disability and other marginalized groups. If designed well, carbon pricing mechanism could help the private sector to realign its operations towards greener operations. Support will be provided to the selected countries to examine viability of carbon taxes which would look at the opportunity cost of the carbon tax for the targeted countries. The aim is to provide evidence and policy advice to the governments of these countries to reduce carbon emissions through using the appropriate carbon pricing and tax structures.
UNDP globally has now a service offer around tax and innovative financing instruments, which provides expertise on sustainable and other SDG related taxes. In the country offices like Vietnam there exists expertise on working on carbon taxes. Similarly, Tax Inspectors Without Borders is a joint initiative of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) supporting countries in building tax audit capacity and also looks at the tax expenditures. The project will draw on this expertise as and when required, build on country level analysis that has been undertaken to date and ensure synergies/collaboration with related initiatives.
 UNDP et. al. (2018) Opportunities For Carbon Pricing in Viet Nam https://www.vn.undp.org/content/vietnam/en/home/library/environment_climate/opportunities-for-carbon-pricing-in-viet-nam.html
 See studies for Bangladesh, Indonesia, China, etc. E.g., see Shafiqul Alam (2019) Carbon Pricing to contribute to Greenhouse Gas mitigation efforts of Bangladesh: Design features and Rationale; World Bank (2018) Options for a carbon tax in Bangladesh; Sadiq Ahmed, Bazlul H. Khondker (2018) Towards a Carbon Tax in Bangladesh supported by Economic Dialogue on Green Growth (EDGG) & UK Aid
Duties and Responsibilities
Scope of Work:
The consultant will be engaged for a period of 1 year and shall be based in Bangkok with some travel to the region. The consultant will be responsible within the team to plan for and manage the programme actions and workplan to mainstream mitigation considerations in the regional strengthening the governance of climate change finance programme for selected countries. This includes engaging with partners, providing specialised technical inputs as well as liaising with country governments and national institutions on relevant activities. Specifically, he/ she will support in managing and providing technical assistance on the following mitigation related activities:
1. Overall management of mitigation component and liaise with the governments, through country focal points from the group of countries during situation analysis on the existing mechanisms for carbon pricing and based on this determine the specific demands of countries with regards to feasible design of carbon pricing mechanisms, including piloting and testing of schemes. Key to ensuring a sustainable design is ensuring political feasibility and public support without compromising environmental effectiveness or sound tax policy principles. This will include providing:
2. Support research on policy choices on mitigation actions - this will include but not limited to developing the terms of reference and managing the procurement process of the think tank/ service provider to be hired for research and development of policy options on mitigation actions including the opportunity cost of imposing carbon tax, potential areas of expending receipts from carbon tax to ensure equity and equality among different communities and groups and utilization of receipts on longer term emission controls.
3. Mapping and analysis of carbon pricing landscape - Different types of incentives to drive mitigation actions need to be mapped including through carbon pricing mechanisms. The exercise will evaluate and compare the impact of taxes and other carbon pricing mechanisms (such as domestic and regional emissions trading schemes). This should also assess the implication of these instruments and mechanisms on the fiscus as well as on different group of society (genders, ages, and urban and rural populations) with a view to ensure equity and effectiveness. This mapping will be undertaken by a research/ think tank under the programme. The consultant will provide technical oversight and quality assurance for the think thank’s work including:
4. Identify options for alignment of tax systems to mitigation actions: Based on the research and mapping for carbon tax, the consultant will initiate discussions with the Country Revenue Authorities and Ministries of Finance to identify options for aligning tax system to mitigation efforts. This will include analysing the legal and regulatory frameworks, looking at the tax exemptions and the tax expenditures, and incentives for reduced emissions.
5. Structuring and contributing to regional dialogues on options and incentives for mitigation actions – The dialogues will be based on research on relevant mitigation actions including the opportunity cost of imposing carbon tax, potential areas of expending receipts from carbon tax to ensure equity and equality among different communities and groups and utilization of receipts on longer term emission controls. The consultant will be responsible to:
Expected Outputs and Deliverables:
The Consultant will work under supervision of the SDG Finance Policy Advisor and Governance and Climate Finance Specialist at UNDP BRH.
Duration of the Work:
The expected duration of this assignment is one year with maximum of 120 working days. The proposed start date is 25th February 2020, and planned to be completed by 28th February 2021.
The assignment will be Bangkok based with anticipated mission travel. Presence at UNDP Bangkok Regional Hub office is required.
Required Skills and Experience
Qualifications of the Successful Individual Contractor
Advanced Degree (Master’s) in any of the following fields - taxation and fiscal policy, environmental economics, climate change, natural resource management, energy studies, and/or other relevant fields.
Scope of Price Proposal and Schedule of Payments:
Method of payment and Financial proposal
The method of payment is output-based scheme. Consultant must send a financial proposal based on Lump Sum amount excluding travel cost. The total amount quoted shall be all-inclusive and include all costs components required to perform the deliverables identified in the TOR, including professional fee and other related cost (exclude travel cost) and any other applicable cost to be incurred by the IC in completing the assignment. The contract price will be fixed output-based price regardless of extension of the herein specified duration. The payments shall be released upon submitting the required deliverables with satisfactory by or before the due dates agreed with the Nationally Determined Contributions Support Programme team and the Governance of Climate Change Finance team as per below percentages:
Travel related cost
Travel costs will be reimbursed at actual cost but not exceeding the quotation from UNDP certified travel agency. The provided living allowance will not be exceeding UNDP DSA rates.
In general, UNDP shall not accept travel costs exceeding those of an economy, most direct, round-trip ticket. Should the IC wish to travel on a higher class he/she should do so using their own resources.
In the event of unforeseeable travel not anticipated in this TOR, payment of travel costs including tickets, lodging and terminal expenses should be agreed upon, between the respective business unit and the Individual Consultant, prior to travel and will be reimbursed.
Criteria for Selection of the Best Offer:
The award of the contract shall be made to the individual consultant whose offer has been evaluated and determined as a) responsive/compliant/acceptable, and b) having the highest score out of set of weighted technical criteria (70%) and financial criteria (30%). Financial score shall be computed as a ratio of the proposal being evaluated and the lowest priced proposal received by UNDP for the assignment.
Stages of Selection process:
Preliminary Shortlisting on pass/fail basis
Detailed Technical Evaluation;
Please note only those candidates who score minimum 70% marks of out above 70 marks will be called for interview.
Only candidates obtaining a minimum of 70 points (70% of the total technical points) would be considered for the Financial Evaluation (30%).
Documents to be included when submitting the proposals:
Interested individual consultants must submit the following to demonstrate their suitability for the assignment.
Incomplete proposals may not be considered. The short-listed candidates may be contacted and the successful candidate will be notified
Annex I TOR Mitigation and Carbon Tax Consultant
All documents can be downloaded at: https://procurement-notices.undp.org/view_notice.cfm?notice_id=63160
Any request for clarification must be sent in writing, or by standard electronic communication to E-mail address: email@example.com under Subject : JobAds 90045 - Mitigation and Carbon Tax Consultant
UNDP is committed to achieving workforce diversity in terms of gender, nationality and culture. Individuals from minority groups, indigenous groups and persons with disabilities are equally encouraged to apply. All applications will be treated with the strictest confidence.
UNDP does not tolerate sexual exploitation and abuse, any kind of harassment, including sexual harassment, and discrimination. All selected candidates will, therefore, undergo rigorous reference and background checks.