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Policy Writer Consultant – Study on Undocumented Persons in Sabah
|Location :||Putrajaya, MALAYSIA|
|Application Deadline :||04-Dec-20 (Midnight New York, USA)|
|Type of Contract :||Individual Contract|
|Post Level :||International Consultant|
|Languages Required :||English|
|Starting Date :|
(date when the selected candidate is expected to start)
|Duration of Initial Contract :||A maximum of 40 days|
|Expected Duration of Assignment :||Between December 2020 and February 2021.|
UNDP is committed to achieving workforce diversity in terms of gender, nationality and culture. Individuals from minority groups, indigenous groups and persons with disabilities are equally encouraged to apply. All applications will be treated with the strictest confidence.
UNDP does not tolerate sexual exploitation and abuse, any kind of harassment, including sexual harassment, and discrimination. All selected candidates will, therefore, undergo rigorous reference and background checks.
One of the key principles of the Agenda 2030 and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is to leave no one behind and to reach those furthest behind first. This project is therefore, aimed at better understanding the profile and issues faced by the significant number of people living in Sabah today, who do not have documentation and lack access to basic services such as health and education, and to make recommendations to address this complex issue and in this way, accelerate Malaysia’s attainment of the SDGs.
Poverty reduction strategies in Sabah have met with success, having been a significant recipient of investments in infrastructure and social interventions over the years. The incidence of poverty in Sabah reduced from 23.4% in 1999 to 4% in 2014, and 2.9% in 2017 (DOSM (October 2017). Report of Household Income and Basic Amenities Survey 2016. https://www.dosm.gov.my/v1/index.php?r=column/pdfPrev&id=RUZ5REwveU1ra1hGL21JWVlPRmU2Zz09). Despite this achievement, Sabah remains the state with the highest level of poverty in Malaysia.
Over the last 40 years, the population of Sabah has increased from 698,000 in 1970 to 3.2 million in 2010 (Economic Planning Unit. Official Website of Economic Planning Unit, Prime Minister’s Department. Available from http://www.epu.gov.my/en/content/12-bilangan-penduduk-mengikut-negeri. Accessed 10th October, 2017.). Interestingly, the greatest increase seems to have occurred between the years of 1970 and 1990, roughly coinciding with the period of armed conflict in the Southern Philippines and the arrival of refugee and migrant populations. In the last 20-year period alone, the population of Sabah increased from 698,000 to 1.79 million people.
According to census estimates, indigenous groups currently comprise 61.2% of the total population of Sabah, while migrant workers total 889,779 people, or 27.7% of the population.
In relation to education, it is estimated that only 2% of undocumented children have access to the few alternative learning centres established by NGOs and run by the community themselves. Even if schooling is provided, it is often only until Year Six. Many undocumented minors who are unable to access educational services have been described as surviving as street children, who grow up illiterate. Access to public healthcare e.g. immunizations and sexual and reproductive health services for the undocumented are also limited (http://www.ums.edu.my/fpsk/images/Journal/J.2016/2.9.pdf) . This vulnerable population also faces the threat of detention and deportation back to their country of origin. And when deported, it apparently does not take long before they to return to Sabah. Detainees in immigration centres in Sabah are currently estimated at 3,200 people. (Geraldine A. (21 September 2017). Immigration Dept carries out 1,003 operations, nabs 13,601 illegals nationwide since Jan. News Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2017/09/282452/immigration-dept-carries-out-1003-operations-nabs-13601-illegals)
In the thriving economy of Sabah, there are work opportunities in the informal sectors (mainly in construction and plantation sector) and hence, undocumented immigrants can generally find work, though work is scarce on the East Coast, which has not seen as much economic development. However, undocumented populations from the Southern Philippines seem to remain a shadow society, living in parallel to the formal institutions, with no access to state services as a social safety net against extreme vulnerability.
The situation is compounded by the negative stereotypes associated with the immigrant population who are blamed for the rise in crime rate, for taking away jobs from locals and for environmental pollution. A whole generation of hundreds of thousands of uneducated children with only unskilled work opportunities in the future will only exacerbate the situation.
With no access to education, health and formal employment, these communities continue to live in the shadow economy, with the most marginalised of these undocumented groups only becoming more vulnerable and excluded. The 2013 incursion in Lahad Datu and clashes with the security forces adds a security dimension to the problem. And with the reported strengthening of the Abu Sayyaf group in Southern Philippines, these areas are under threat of potential influence by militant and armed groups with extreme ideologies/terrorist activities.
Despite significantly lacking information and data on undocumented persons and communities in Sabah, the Government of Malaysia recognizes the opportunities from the contributions of these
populations to the economic growth of Malaysia. A significant proportion of the undocumented population could also be indigenous peoples of Sabah. In view of this, United Nations Country Team
(UNCT) has obtained the approval of the Sabah Government in July 2018 to conduct a joint mapping and profiling study on the socio-economic status of undocumented persons and communities in Sabah, together with the federal and state authorities. This study is expected to provide the necessary data and evidence-base for decision making and foundation for recommendations and policy planning through consultations with relevant stakeholders, especially with the affected and vulnerable populations themselves and a consulting team from the Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS) has been appointed to undertake the Study.
The 2010 Malaysian Population and Housing Census summarises the demographic characteristics of Sabah as being comprised of 61.3% Bumiputera (consisting of 5.7% Malays, 17.8% Kadazan/Dusun, 14% Bajau, 3.2% Murut, and 20.6% of other Bumiputera including Suluk population) and 27.7% non-citizens. The Chinese, Indians and other non-Bumiputera population are estimated at 11%. However, data gaps remain because while the census has captured those who are non-citizens, it does not expressly state whether people responding to the survey and who self-identify as Bumiputera, actually have the necessary documentation to confirm their status. The current census data does not seem to be able to quantify the number of undocumented persons, and other means are utilized to estimate this marginalised group.
There are four distinct groups of people in Sabah, who could be associated as undocumented persons that could be grouped as follows, but which this Study would need to analyse and profile more accurately:
Objectives of the Project
The objectives of this project, to be jointly undertaken by the UNCT and the Malaysian Government, is to conduct a scoping and mapping study (hereinafter referred to as “Study”) to:
1) Understand the scale of issues and assess the risks of economic and social cost of inaction, including through foresighting exercises.
2) Conduct a comprehensive assessment of the socio-economic parameters of the undocumented persons in Sabah through a combination of qualitative and quantitative efforts to provide a basis for policy and decision making to address the issue from a human development view in line with international standards and the leaving no one behind lens of the SDGs.
3) Identify and more accurately define the profiles of the communities and individuals and their interlinkages with broader socio-economic and development issues in the state.
4) Profile the undocumented population in terms of livelihoods, access to basic services, patriarchal structures, law enforcement within the communities, external influences, stigmas and other pertinent issues;
5) Develop sufficient data and evidence-base by compiling existing data and literature on the subject matter as well as through appropriate and innovative data collection and analysis, efficient data collection methodology (including through innovative means, surveys, big data analytics); determining data parameters, availability and sources; and develop recommendations to strengthen census of the undocumented population;
6) Identify the challenges, bottlenecks and root causes as well as possible solutions including by alternative service providers in consultation with the relevant agencies and departments of government at the state and federal levels; through assessment of available literature on the matter, and through workshops and dialogues utilizing innovative ideation, system design and other appropriate tools;
7) Develop a set of recommendations to address the issues relating to the undocumented population, including administrative and other barriers and issues faced by these vulnerable groups; analyze the cost of inaction, loss of development opportunities, and long-term risks using foresighting and othertools - in line with the goals and targets of the Agenda 2030 and SDGs, taking into account international standards ad best practices of other countries.
It is however envisaged that the objectives may be further refined after more in-depth discussions with Government and the UNCT. Throughout the period of conducting research and after findings and data have gathered, engage in discussions with Government, the UNCT and other stakeholders on the next steps, including any recommendations or potential plans of action or solutions for the beneficiary population.
Duties and Responsibilities
SCOPE OF WORK OF THE /CONSULTANT
The Consultant is expected to deliver in accordance to the Objectives of the study as follows:
DELIVERABLES AND TIMELINE OF EXPECTED OUTPUTS
Under the supervision of the Focal Point of UNCT and the PMT, the consultant will be responsible to provide expert advice this project as well as review and improve on the methodology, reports, presentations, proposed pilot programme and surveys done by the UMS research team under this Project; and liaise and present when required to the IEG and the UNCT.
List of expected outputs.
Note: The Consultant is expected to attend meetings (including Project Management Team meetings via Skype or other means) and present the findings of the Study, as and when required.
With the expert work of the Consultant, this Study conducted by the UMS Study Team on behalf of the UNCT is expected:
1. To be of high quality and factually correct:
2. To be consistent with UN standards in terms of:
3. To be reliable in its findings:
PROVISION OF MONITORING AND PROGRESS CONTROLS
The Consultant will work under supervision of the Focal Person of UNCT and National Programme Manager. S/he will work in close collaboration with other staff of the UN System in Malaysia as needed.
CONFIDENTIALITY AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
TERMS OF PAYMENT AND EXPECTED TIMELINE
Note: Further discussion on the deliverables/milestone will be made during the inception phase.
*Consultant here refers to the Consultant engaged as per this Terms of Reference.
Development and Operational Effectiveness
Management and Leadership
Required Skills and Experience
DOCUMENTS TO BE INCLUDED WHEN SUBMITTING THE PROPOSALS
Interested individual applicants must submit the following documents/information to demonstrate their qualifications:
How to Apply:
General terms & conditions to be downloaded:
Reimbursable Loan Agreement (RLA): A legal instrument between UNDP and a Company/institution, according to which, the latter makes available the services of an individual delivering time-bound and quantifiable outputs that are directly linked to payments
The candidate will be evaluated based on the methodology of Cumulative Analysis.
The award of the contract will be made by UNDP to the candidate whose offer has been evaluated and determined as responsive, compliant and acceptable, and having received the highest score out of a pre-determined set of weighted technical and financial criteria specific to the solicitation:
a) Technical criteria weight (70%)
b) Financial criteria weight (30%)
Only candidates obtaining a minimum of 50 points will be considered for the Financial Evaluation.