The Government of the Kingdom of Eswatini has ratified the Paris Agreement that seeks to hold the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above preindustrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above preindustrial levels. In addition, Eswatini has submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The NDC is considered as a policy document which has an overall objective of putting the country on a Low carbon climate resilient pathway and aimed at assisting the country to contribute towards the achievement of the global temperature goal.
As a developing country with about 69% of the population living on less than $1, the Nationally Determined Contribution for Eswatini to Paris Agreement on Climate change emphasizes adaptation measures while at the same time reducing greenhouse emissions by 20% by 2030 from the business as usual baseline of 2010. In Eswatini, the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sector is responsible for 44% of the total greenhouse gas emissions of the country. Due to the role of terrestrial ecosystems as a source and sink of emissions land is positioned as a key point of intervention for climate change mitigation and adaptation as also reflected in Eswatini's Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC).
Land-based mitigation options rank among the most cost-effective opportunities to sequester carbon emissions. Economic evaluations of various climate change mitigation alternatives show that capturing carbon through restoring degraded lands (including degraded forest) is a cost-effective option that offers multiple co-benefits. Terrestrial ecosystems also play an important role as carbon sinks, offsetting emissions released by various sectors of the economy. The potential carbon storage per hectare (ha) and year varies considerably depending on the type of biome, the practice on the ground, and the prevalent climate. In general, terrestrial ecosystems have a significant potential for carbon sequestration linked to the cumulative historic loss of carbon from land-use change. The capacity of land to further store carbon is crucial for bridging the time until new technologies to tackle climate change are adopted on a larger scale. Land use changes have an impact on GHGs emissions. For instance, conversion of forests into other land uses such as cropland, grazing land, settlement etc. and vice versa can lead to either Greenhouse Gas emissions or removals that exacerbate or mitigate climate change. The status of the land use and time series on observed changes on land cover and use can support generation of GHGs emissions and/or removals scenarios that can inform the inclusion of NDC targets from Agriculture, Forests and Other land Uses. The status of ecosystems and biodiversity represented in various land uses also has potential to contribute to nature-based climate change adaptation that should inform policies and measures to be considered for inclusion in the adaptation NDCs. The mapping of the land use categories and status in Eswatini will provide critical input to assess the merits of including Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry in the revised and updated NDCs.
Following COP-21, attention has turned from developing and submitting NDCs to revising and updating the NDCs for a more ambitious and inclusive effective implementation of the contributions. UNDP plays a central role in building countries’ capacity to strengthen and implement NDCs, given its previous INDC support experience, its technical expertise in related areas, and its on-the-ground presence in over 170 countries. As part of enhancing climate action in Eswatini in line with her commitment to Paris Agreement, Government has embarked on the NDC revision process under the Climate Action Enhancement Package (CAEP) with support from development partners that include, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), Commonwealth Secretariat, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), World Resources Institute (WRI); and NDC Partnership Support Unit.
UNDP through its Climate Promise Initiative is supporting Eswatini to revise her NDC commitment including; i) Building Political Will, whole of government and whole of society ownership; ii) Review, align and update existing targets, policies and measures; iii) Incorporate new sectors and/or GHGs; iv) Assess costs and Investment opportunities for attaining targets; v) establish mechanisms to monitor progress & strengthen transparency; and vi) Preparing the revised NDC document.
It is against this background that UNDP is seeking to engage a competent consultant to support The Government of the Kingdom of Eswatini to undertake Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry /AFOLU Mapping to inform integration of nature-based solutions in the revision and updating of the NDCs. The input of the mapping is to ensure that the revised NDCs consider the potential contribution of LULUCF / AFOLU and nature-based solutions to meeting the NDC mitigating and adaptation goals and targets.
Duties and Responsibilities
Scope of the assignment
The LULUCF / AFOLU Mapping consultant will perform, the following tasks:
- Undertake review of relevant literature and undertake stakeholder consultations to define LULUCF/AFOLU in the context of Eswatini and identify the key categories of LULUCF/AFOLU as defined by the IPCC 1996 or 2006 Guidelines
- Review the various land use categories above map the spatial areas and extent for each, assess human induced management practices for the managed lands in terms of Afforestation, Reforestation, Forest Management, Crop land, Grazing land, wetlands or settlement
- Identify and characterize the changes in each land use over a time series using a commonly agreed base year to date and detail the key factors for observed changes
- Develop a digital map for different land use practices across the country.
- Assess the emission and removals potentials for each significant land use to provide necessary information for consideration for inclusion in the NDC mitigation and adaptation measures
- Review the current NDC, National Climate Change Policy, land use plans and other climate and environmental sustainability related policies to ascertain gaps. In the context of inclusion of LULUCF/AFOLU in the revision of the NDCs
- Identify nature-based adaptation solutions based on the land uses mapped, assess their potential and opportunities for enhancing adaptation in the NDCs
- Conduct stakeholder assessment and mapping for the consultations
- Provide recommendations on consideration of LULUCF/AFOLU in the NDCs with specific mitigation and adaptation policies, measures goals and targets to be included in the enhanced NDCs
- Make thematic presentations during NDC review sessions inter alia to sensitize and guide participants on potential of LULUCF in the various workshops and meetings for the revision of the NDCs. This will entail working with the NDC review working group in organizing and promoting learning and knowledge events at the national level in coordination with other key partners and stakeholders. These will include workshops, conferences, seminars, dissemination meetings etc.
- Assess land use metrics and indicators in the MRV system for tracking NDC implementation progress (MRV management plan, MRV Guidelines and tools for data collection monitoring and verification.
- Develop guidance notes on nature-based solutions for climate action; and institutionalizing land use planning into key mitigation and adaptation actions.
Outputs and key Deliverables
- Inception Report detailing a workplan and the methodologies/processes to be used in performing the tasks in the scope of work;
- A detailed final report covering outputs for all the tasks in the scope of work, including Digital GIS Land use maps for the present and time series 15-year intervals from the base year;
- Guidance notes on nature-based solutions for climate action and institutionalizing land use planning into key mitigation and adaptation action;
- Report on workshops and trainings conducted to facilitate NDC revision;
Duty Station, Travel and Institutional Arrangement
- Duty station: Home based. The Mapping Land Use Changes Consultant will be given access to relevant information necessary for execution of the tasks under this assignment;
- Travel within Eswatini may be requested;
- The Consultant will carry out his/her tasks under the overall guidance of the Ministry of Tourism and Environmental Affairs;
- The Consultant will be reporting to the UNDP Deputy Resident Representative and the Climate Change Coordinator in the Ministry of Tourism and Environmental Affairs;
- Demonstrate commitment to UNDP's mission, vision and values.
- Displays cultural, gender, religion, race, nationality and age sensitivity and adaptability.
- Highest standards of integrity, discretion and loyalty.
- Substantive experience conducting research and analysis in the area of Land use, Land use change and forest analysis and Mapping, Greenhouse Gas Inventory work and at least one other related theme, including climate change mitigation and/or adaptation, NDC, environment and/or sustainable development.
- Demonstrated substantive experience in working with developing countries and undertaking policy and programmatic work in the area of expertise mentioned above.
- Demonstrated experience in development of climate change mitigation and adaptation related strategies, programmes and facilitating capacity building processes in developing countries.
- Demonstrated experience working on policy and programmatic areas with national and local governments and civil society organizations.
- Experience or strong familiarity with the work of Government of Eswatini, academia, UNDP and/or other multilateral, bilateral and civil society development partners.
- Excellent analytical, writing, and communications skills.
- Demonstrated ability to work in an independent manner.
- Demonstrated project management experience including administrative and logistical is preferable.
Required Skills and Experience
- Advanced degree in GIS, Environmental Sciences or any other related geography field.
- Work experience for at least 5 years in GIS, climate change and environment, land use planning expertise will be an added advantage;
- Proven ability to undertake land use mapping;
- Demonstrated understanding of climate change;
- Experience in designing and facilitating capacity building processes;
- Ability to produce quality reports;
- Fluency in written and spoken English;
Scope of Price Proposal and Schedule of Payments
- The Financial Proposal shall specify a total lump-sum amount all-inclusive; and payment shall be in installments based on specific and measurable (qualitative and quantitative) specified in the TOR.
Interested individuals must submit the following documents /information to demonstrate their qualification, experience and suitability to undertake the assignment. All supporting documents (ad) must be part of the detailed CV and uploaded as one document
a) Duly accomplished Letter of Confirmation of Interest and Availability using the template provided by UNDP;
b) Personal CV or P11, indicating all experience from similar projects, as well as the contact details email and telephone number) of the Candidate and at least three (3) professional references;
c) Brief description of why the individual considers him/herself as the most suitable for the assignment; and a methodology on how they will approach and complete the assignment
d) Financial Proposal that indicates the all-inclusive fixed total contract price supported by a breakdown of costs, as per template provided. If an Offeror is employed by an organization/company/institution, and he/she expects his/her employer to charge a management fee in the process of releasing him/her to UNDP under Reimbursable Loan Agreement (RLA), the Offeror must indicate at this point, and ensure that all such costs are duly incorporated in the financial proposal submitted to UNDP.